Authors:Q. Xu, W.J. Feng, H.R. Peng, Z.F. Ni and Q.X. Sun
Members of WRKY gene family encode transcription factors involved in plant developmental processes and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In order to understand the function of the TaWRKY71 gene, a homologue gene was isolated and characterised in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotype TAM107. Tissue-specific gene expression profiles indicated that TaWRKY71 was constitutively expressed in roots, stems, leaves, stamen and pistil. The relative expression of TaWRKY71 was elucidated under ABA treatment and other abiotic stresses. In agreement with this, several putative cis-acting elements involved in ABA-response, drought-inducibility, low-temperature and heat response were detected in the promoter region of TaWRKY71. The function of TaWRKY71 was further determined by transforming Arabidopsis thaliana. Transgenic plants over-expressing TaWRKY71 displayed enhanced seed germination under ABA treatment and were tolerant to salt and drought stresses. These results indicate that TaWRKY71 gene might play important roles in seed germination and abiotic stress response.
Authors:W. Ehmann, B-F. Ni, D. Samudralwar, M. Deibel and Z. Yu
Oxygen and fluorine have been simultaneously determined by 14-MeV INAA in samples containing boron. Both boron and fluorine can cause serious interferences in the determination of oxygen. The fluorine and boron interference corrections for oxygen determination have been determined to be 0.43±0.01 and 0.0832±0.0017 apparent g oxygen per g of fluorine and boron, respectively, for our system. Boron can be determined in the same sample by a second irradiation. Mutual interferences have been evaluated and the procedure has been applied to NIST SRM and several other compounds.
Authors:M. Ebihara, Y. S. Chung, W. Chueinta, B.-F. Ni, T. Otoshi, Y. Oura, F. L. Santos, F. Sasajima, Sutisna and A. K. B. H. Wood
Seven Asian countries have been collaborating in collecting airborne particulate matter (APM) in their individual countries
and analyzing them by neutron activation analysis as a common analytical tool. APM samples were collected into two fractions
of fine and coarse grains (PM2 and PM2-10, respectively). Analytical data were compared from several viewpoints such as particulate
sizes, locality of sampling sites (either urban or rural) and geographical location of participating countries. Chemical composition
and their monthly variations as well as mass concentrations appear to be highly characteristic for individual sampling sites,
suggesting that NAA data are suitable for evaluating the air quality in each site.
Authors:D. Huang, H. Zhang, M. Tar, Y. Zhang, F. Ni, J. Ren, D. Fu, L. Purnhauser and J. Wu
Stripe or yellow rust (Yr), caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. (Pst), is one of the most important wheat diseases worldwide. New aggressive Pst races can spread quickly, even between countries and continents. To identify and exploit stripe rust resistance genes, breeders must characterize first the Pst resistance and genotypes of their cultivars. To find new sources of resistances it is important to study how wheat varieties respond to Pst races that predominate in other continents. In this study we evaluated stripe rust resistance in 53 Hungarian winter wheat cultivars in China. Twenty-four cultivars (45.3%) had all stage resistance (ASR) and 1 (1.9%) had adult-plant resistance (APR), based on seedling tests in growth chambers and adult-plant tests in fields. We molecularly genotyped six Yr resistance genes: Yr5, Yr10, Yr15, Yr17, Yr18, and Yr36. Yr18, an APR gene, was present alone in five cultivars, and in ‘GK Kapos’, that also had seedling resistance. The other five Yr genes were absent in all cultivars tested.
The virulence frequency of 750 wheat powdery mildew isolates of wheat genotypes, carrying 23 Pm-genes and gene combinations, was studied over ten consecutive years from 2004 to 2013. Seventy-eight previously known and 39 new pathotypes were identified during this period. The results indicate that the majority of Pm-genes have high level of virulence. Sixty to ninety percent of the isolates were virulent to Pm6, Pm8, Pm8+11, Pm2+4b+8, Pm3g, Pm10+15, Pm10+14+15. The virulence frequency was variable for Pm1a, Pm2, Pm3a, Pm3b, Pm3c, Pm5, Pm7 genes and reached high level in certain years. The virulence frequency to genes Pm20, Pm37, Pm4a+ and to gene combination with Pm3c+5a+35 and breeding lines CN240/06, CN98/06 and CN158/06 ranged from 1 to 8%. Bread wheat lines CN240/06, CN98/06 and CN158/06, derived from interspecific crosses, proved to be highly resistant to powdery mildew.
Authors:M. Ebihara, Y. Chung, H. Dung, J. Moon, B. Ni, T. Otoshi, Y. Oura, F. Santos, F. Sasajima, Sutisna, B. Wee, W. Wimolwattanapun and A. Wood
Air particulate matter (APM) samples (PM2.5 and PM10–2.5) were collected at 13 sampling points in 8 Asian countries and their chemical compositions were determined by using neutron
activation analysis (NAA) with the k0-standardization method in addition to conventional comparative method of NAA. Analytical data showed that mass concentration
and elemental composition of the APM collected are variable in terms of time and space, and are related to the characteristics
of the sampling sites concerned. NAA was proved to be highly effective for the regional characterization of APM in chemical
Authors:Y.-F. Yang, X.-Y. Lai, G.-L. Huang, Y.-H. Chen, X.-P. Du, Z.-D. Jiang, F. Chen and H. Ni
Bee pollen is a health food with a wide range of nutritional and therapeutic properties. However, the bioactive compounds of bee pollen have not been extensively revealed due to low efficacy in separation. High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and solvent extraction were applied to separate tyrosinase inhibitors from camellia pollen in this study. The camellia pollen extracts prepared with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and n-BuOH have tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Acidic hydrolysis could promote the tyrosinase inhibitory activity of crude sample. Three fractions with tyrosinase inhibitory activity were separated from the hydrolysate by a one-step HSCCC procedure. Among the fractions, two chemicals were sufficiently purified and identified to be levulinic acid (LA) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF). The recovery was 0.80 g kg−1 pollen for LA and 1.75 g kg−1 pollen for 5-HMF; and their purity was all over 98%. The study demonstrates that HSCCC method is powerful for preparative separation of tyrosinase inhibitors from camellia pollen.