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  • Author or Editor: F. Schönhofer x
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Abstract  

Analyzing environmental samples it is often necessary to determine traces in a matrix or to separate elements easily activated. In this case the detection limit depends on the amount of sample which can be separated. Frequently group separations are sufficient. In this paper we describe the relationship between amount, focussing area and concentration of the electrolytes in electrophoretic focussing. The load capacity and the possibility of group separations are evaluated. It is shown that within 4–5 min up to mg amounts can be separated into at least five groups on a 2 cm broad strip and that the ions are concentrated into small zones with a concentration of up to 1 mg·cm−2.

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Abstract  

By means of electrophoretic focussing relatively large amounts can be separated into groups. It is shown that an even better separation can be achieved in a two-dimensional method. The first step of a normal zone electrophoresis is followed by electrophoretic focussing. A sample containing about 0.3 mg metal-ions was separated within 20 minutes. A further advantage over other two-dimensional methods is that the ions are concentrated into small zones by the second step.

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Abstract  

In the course of routine surveillance for indoor radon in Austria, concentrations above 10,000 Bq/m3 were found in a house in the province of Carinthia, Austria. Multiple 3-day-measurements in all the rooms of the house were carried out for the next 21 months. All rooms of the house had elevated radon concentrations but radon levels decreased systematically from east to west within the house. Moreover, radon concentrations in one room of the building were found to be below 300 Bq/m3 in winter but above 12,000 Bq/m3 in summer. After installing a medium sized fan, operated only during the summer season, the semiannual summer radon levels dropped from approximately 8,000 Bq/m3 to 250 Bq/m3 at ground floor level.

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Abstract  

Watches are consumer products and are subject to the regulations that control food and consumer products. Elevated concentrations of tritium were found in the urine of persons who wore wrist watches with luminous dials and plastic cases. High emissions of tritium from these watches were observed. In an experiment, a volunteer wore a watch with high emissions and the build up of the tritium concentration in urine was monitored, as well as the decline after removing the watch. Possible pathways for the incorporation and its mechanism are considered. In spite of the relatively high activity concentrations observed, the dose is negligible. On the other hand, the principle ALARA can be achieved without any costs by simply choosing other types of watches.

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Abstract  

The situation in Austria following the Chernobyl accident is described shortly as well as applications of measurements with the ultra low level liquid scintillation counter Quantulus concerning milk, precipitation, surface water and drinking water. Data on the measurement of tritium are presented.

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Abstract  

The use of an ultra low level liquid scintillation counter with extremely low background, MCA technique, storage and software evaluation of pulse height spectra has given very low LLD's, the possibility of - and -spectrometry to some extent and time saving optimization of counting conditions. Quick and very simple but yet accurate analytical methods could be worked out worked out for environmental measurements: Environmental levels of tritium,14C in several assimilation products,222Rn and226Ra in water without any sample pretreatment. Suggestions for possible further applications in environmenial monitoring and low level counting are given.

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