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Abstract  

Chromium at concentrations of parts per billion in water, may be determined by activation analysis using an instrumental method preceded by concentration on anion exchange resins. Blank runs, using deionized water, are carried through the steps of preconcentration. The blank-resin and sample-resin are irradiated together with thermal neutrons, and the gamma spectrum of each is stored in half of the memory unit of a multichannel analyzer. Subtraction of the blank-resin spectrum from the sample-resin spectrum gives the51Cr peak free from interfering activities.

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Abstract  

The determination of arsenic by activation analysis in germanium may be disturbed by arsenic isotopes formed in the irradiation of the germanium matrix itself. The isotopic dilution technique will eliminate such interferences, but it requires weighing of very small masses of arsenic, after appropriate chemical separation. This weighing procedure can be avoided if the mass of the recovered arsenic is determined by activation analysis. In order to apply such a procedure, a known amount of arsenic labelled with76As, whose specific activity is also known, is added to the germanium sample to be analysed. The sample is processed, the arsenic separated, and the chemical yield established. The recovered mass of arsenic is then determined by activation analysis applying the classical isotopic dilution analysis formula. The accuracy precision and linearity of the method are discussed.

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Abstract  

In this paper it is presented a case of falsification of whisky in which empty bottles of genuine spirit were re-used as containment for low price whisky. Activation analysis was made of bottle-caps (a lead and tin alloy) of counterfeited bottles and of genuine imported ones as well as of a stock of bottle-caps found at the place where the material was apprehended. Results for trace and main elements indicated common origin for the bottle-caps in the counterfeited bottles and the ones found at the place where the material was apprehended and different origin for the bottle-caps in the imported bottles, indicating re-use of the imported bottles.

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Abstract  

Porous ceramic materials based on calcium phosphate compounds (CFC) have been studied and developed for several biomedical applications such as implants, controlled drug delivery, and radioactive sources for brachytherapy. Two kinds of hydroxyapatite (HAp) powders and their ceramic bodies were characterized. In this study, non-radioactive iodine was incorporated in two types of biodegradable hydroxyapatite-based porous matrices (HA and HACL). The results reveal that both systems present a high capacity of incorporating iodine. The quantity of incorporated iodine was measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The porous ceramic matrices based on hydroxyapatite demonstrated a great potential for uses in low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy.

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Abstract  

This paper presents a method to study cement hydration at ambient temperatures by using a micro processed non-conventional differential thermal analysis (DTA) system, which was used to evaluate the solidification/stabilization process of tannery wastes produced in the leather industry. The DTA curves of pastes composed by slag cement, Wyoming bentonite and waste are obtained in real time and used to analyze the heat effects of the reactions during the first 24 h of hydration. By applying a deconvolution method to separate the overlapped DTA peaks, the energy released in the several hydration stages may be estimated and consequently, the effects of each component on the solidification process. The highest separated DTA peak occurs during the several early stages of cement hydration and is due mainly to tricalcium silicate hydration. Very good correlation shows that the greater is the waste content in the paste composition, the higher is its effect on the rates of reactions occurring during the induction (dormant) period of cement hydration. The presence of bentonite used as a solidification additive in the stabilization process has a similar but less dramatic effect on the dormant period.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: S. Silva, M. Conceiçăo, A. Souza, S. Prasad, M. Silva, V. Fernandes, A. Araújo, and F. Sinfrônio

Abstract  

The powder and the bran of algaroba pods, submitted to drying temperatures of 55, 65, 75, 85, 95 and 105C, were studied by conventional and thermogravimetric methods. The dynamic thermogravimetric curves of the samples indicated the following thermal stability order: 105>55>65>95>85>75C. The powder and the bran of algaroba pods, dried at 55C, presented protein content higher and isothermal thermogravimetric profiles comparable. The calorimetric curves of samples, dried at 55C, indicated the gelatinization of starch.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Marta Conceição, V. Fernandes Jr, A. Bezerra, M. Silva, Iêda Santos, F. Silva, and A. Souza

Abstract  

Diesel oil has an important role in the field of urban traffic as well as in the transportation of products. However, the amount of the non-renewable sources is continuously decreasing. This fact and the environmental requirements brought the necessity to search for other, renewable sources. This paper aimed the dynamic kinetic calculation of thermal decomposition of castor oil, methanol biodiesel and ethanol biodiesel using Coats–Redfern, Madhusudanan and Ozawa methods. On the base of the thermogravimetric curves the following thermal stability order could be established: castor oil>ethanol biodiesel>methanol biodiesel. Kinetic data presented coherent results. Methanol biodiesel presented lower activation energy than ethanol biodiesel, suggesting that methanol biodiesel has a better quality for combustion.

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Abstract  

Primaquine (PQ) is the drug of choice for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria, and currently being administered in solid dosage form. In this study, the compatibility studies were carried out using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG), and fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR). Non-isothermal and isothermal methods were employed to investigate kinetic parameters under nitrogen and air atmospheres using TG. The DSC investigations obtained by physical mixtures showed slight alterations in the melting temperatures of PQ with some excipients. The FT-IR confirmed the possible interactions obtained by DSC for the physical mixtures with PQ and lactose, magnesium stearate and mannitol. The results showed that the thermal decomposition followed a zero order kinetic in both atmospheres in non-isothermal method. The activation energy in both methods using nitrogen atmosphere was similar, and in air atmosphere the activation energy decreased.

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Abstract

Feldspathic glass–ceramics reinforced with leucite are usually used in dental prosthesis. This study focused on leucite crystallization kinetics due to its importance to the end product of a dental crown processing. Leucite grains were nucleated and grown from feldspathic glass frit powders with particle size smaller than 45 μm. The nucleation and crystallization kinetics of leucite crystals in the glass matrix was investigated under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions through differential thermal analysis. The samples were also characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The temperature of maximum nucleation rate was determined from the DTA curves of samples heat treated at different temperatures. The activation energy (E) of leucite crystallization was determined by the Kissinger method and the Avrami parameter (n) indicated that surface crystallization is the dominant mechanism in the glass.

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Abstract  

Norfloxacin (NFX) is a synthetic antibacterial drug. The development of extended release tablets improves the patients’ comfort and compliance, resulting in lower discontinuation of the therapy; with consequently decrease in bacterial resistance. In the present work, the thermal behavior of NFX was investigated using TG and DSC techniques. Isothermal and non-isothermal methods were employed to determine kinetic data of decomposition process. Compatibility studies between NFX and pharmaceutical excipients, including three hydrophilic polymers were carried out in order to develop a new formulation of NFX to obtain extended release tablets with an approved quality.

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