Common wheat is a widely planted cereal in China, and vernalization is a crucial phase in wheat development. Although three major genes (VRN1, VRN2 and VRN3) are associated with the vernalization response, little is known about their expression profiles during wheat growth. In this study, we observed the spike differentiation process in spring wheat variety XC2 and winter wheat variety J841 and used qRT-PCR to analyze the expression patterns of three VRN genes in the leaves of these wheat varieties during development under vernalization versus non-vernalization treatment under long-day conditions. We also analyzed the expression patterns of VRN1 and VRN3 in the apical meristem. In both spring and winter wheat, the spikes remained at the single ridge state and did not differentiate under vernalization treatment. Spike differentiation completed one week earlier in XC2 spring wheat after vernalization treatment compared with non-vernalization conditions. Vernalization treatment significantly upregulated VRN1 and VRN3 expression in leaves under long-day conditions, whereas VRN2 expression was sharply reduced. The expression of VRN3 was low in shoot apical meristems, while VRN1 was highly expressed in shoot apical meristems when floral primordia began to differentiate and develop, suggesting that VRN1 functions independently in leaves and shoot apical meristems.
Authors:A. Majid, S. Sarmani, N. Yusoff, Y. Wei and F. Hamzah
Elemental content of twenty medicinal plants used as tonic and for treatment of diabetes and simusitis were determined by INAA and XRF. Elemental determination was carried out in the raw samples, residues after boiling and the water soluble fractions. Samples were irradiated in TRIGA MkII reactor and counted using HPGe detector coupled to Personal Computer Analyzer (PCA) system. Bowen's Kale, NBS Pine Needles, NBS Citrus Leaves SRM were analysed to check the accuracy of the techniques used. Twenty elements were determined by both NAA and XRF. Arsenic was only detected inLabisia pothoina andDracontomelon dao with a concentrations of 0.40 mg/kg and 0.60 mg/kg respectively. Antimony was found in eleven samples with a concentration of <0.20 mg/kg. Al, Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mn, Na and Rb were detected in all samples whereas Mg and Zn were present in all samples exceptCinnamomum sp. Highest concentration of Br (190 mg/kg), Cl (11805 mg/kg), Co (0.50 mg/kg), Fe (1642 mg/kg), K (36788 mg/kg), Mn (325 mg/kg), Na (126 mg/kg), Rb (197 mg/kg), Sc (0.18 mg/kg) and Zn (3551 mg/kg) were observed in the tuber ofLasia aculeata. Less than 70% and 50% of the elements contained inCallicarpa longifolia andEurycoma longifolia were obtained respectively from water by boiling.
Authors:W.-Y. Liu, M.-L. Wei, C.-Y. Wu, H.-Y. Zhu, F. Feng and N. Xie
Patrinia scabra Bunge has long been used in clinic as a traditional Chinese medicine for treating leukemia and cancer and regulating host immune response. Despite their wide use in China, no report on system analysis on their chemical constituents is available so far. The current study was designed to profile the fingerprint of ethyl acetate extract of it, and in addition, to characterize the major fingerprint peaks and determine their quantity. Therefore, a detailed gradient high-performance liquid chromatography was described to separate more than 30 compounds with satisfactory resolution in P. scabra Bunge. Based on the chromatograms of 10 batches samples, a typical high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) fingerprint was established with 23 chromatographic peaks being assigned as common fingerprint peaks. Furthermore, a quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF/MS) was coupled for the characterization of major compound. As (+)-nortrachelogenin was the most predominant compound in P. scabra Bunge, the quantification on it was also carried out with the method being validated. As a result, (+)-nortrachelogenin was found to be from 1.33 to 2.21 mg g−1 in this plant material. This rapid and effective analytical method could be employed for quality assessment of P. scabra Bunge, as well as pharmaceutical products containing this herbal material.
Authors:J. Cizdziel, Y. Wei, K. Stetzenbach, V. Hodge, J. Cline, R. Howley and F. Phillips
Samples of rock, soil and seepage were collected from Yucca Mountain, USA, and analyzed for 36Cl/Cl ratios by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Rock excavated from the Drill Hole Wash fault at repository horizon depths
produced a ratio suggesting that small amounts of water with “bomb-pulse” 36Cl had percolated to that site over the past 50 years. Rock from four other sites within the exploratory studies facility
did not yield bomb-pulse ratios. Ratios in the soil varied depending on depth and location, with some samples producing bomb-pulse
signatures. Ratios for seep water were slightly elevated above the present cosmogenic background value. This paper also discusses
results from a column study mimicking the passage of 36Cl through volcanic rock and from an experiment using bromide instead of chloride as a carrier in sample preparation for AMS.
Authors:Zu Wei Zhai, Rani A. Hoff, Caitlin F. Magruder, Marvin A. Steinberg, Jeremy Wampler, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin and Marc N. Potenza
Background and aims
A recent call to action highlighted the need to understand the relationship between problem gambling, violence, and health/functioning. As weapon-carrying and gambling behaviors are prevalent in adolescents, this study systematically examined relationships between weapon-carrying status and measures of problem gambling severity and gambling perceptions and attitudes, as well as how weapon-carrying status moderated relationships between problem gambling severity and measures of health/functioning and gambling behavior.
Participants were 2,301 Connecticut high-school adolescents. χ2 and logistic regression models were conducted.
Weapon-carriers reported greater problem gambling severity, more permissive gambling perceptions, greater parental approval of gambling, and more family gambling concerns, compared to non-weapon-carriers. At-risk/problem gambling was more strongly associated with family, peers, and adult gambling partners among non-weapon-carriers (vs. weapon-carriers) and with machine gambling among weapon-carriers (vs. non-weapon-carriers).
Discussion and conclusions
Greater problem gambling severity and more permissive gambling perceptions and perceived parental approval of gambling in weapon-carrying adolescents suggest that parent–child relationships are important to be considered in prevention efforts. The moderated relationship by weapon-carrying status between problem gambling severity and gambling partners suggests a problem gambling risk group that may be less linked to gambling with traditional social support groups, and this group may benefit from targeted interventions.
Authors:W. Li, Z.Y. Chen, Z. Li, X.F. Zhao, Z.E. Pu, G.Y. Chen, Q.T. Jiang, Y.M. Wei and Y.L. Zheng
To study the development of starch granules in polyploid wheats, we investigated the expression of starch synthetic genes between the synthetic hexaploid wheat SHW-L1, its parents T. turgidum AS2255 and diploid Ae. tauschii AS60. The synthetic hexaploid wheat SHW-L1 showed significantly higher starch content and grain weight than its parents. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that SHW-L1 rapidly developed starch granules than AS2255 and AS60. The amount of B-type granule in AS60 was less than that in SHW-L1 and AS2255. RT-qPCR result showed that the starch synthetic genes AGPLSU1, AGPLSU2, AGPSSU1, AGPSSU2, GBSSI, SSIII, PHO1 and PHO2 expressed at earlier stages with larger quantity in SHW-L1 than in its parents during wheat grain development. The expression of the above mentioned genes in AS60 was slower than in SHW-L1 and AS2255. The expression pattern of starch synthase genes was also associated with the grain weight and starch content in all three genotypes. The results suggested that the synthetic hexaploid wheat inherited the pattern of starch granule development and starch synthase gene expression from tetraploid parent. The results suggest that tetraploid wheat could plays more important role for starch quality improvement in hexaploid wheat.
Authors:N. Niu, Y. L. Song, F. Wei, H. M. Liu, S. M. Ma, H. Y. Zhao and G. S. Zhang
In this study, we employed electron microscopy to investigate the cytogenetic and embryologic mechanisms of parthenogenesis induced in the 1BL/1RS male sterile lines of wheat. Analysis of the root tips and acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that all of the male sterile lines and their maintainer lines were 1BL/1RS translocation lines, whereas the restorer lines were non-1BL/1RS translocation lines. Furthermore, the chromosomes of 1BL/1RS wheat lines with T. aestivum cytoplasm and Aegilops cytoplasm (include Ae. kotschyi, Ae. ventricosa, Ae. variabilis) paired abnormally at different rates during meiotic metaphase I (MMI). The translocated segment size of the 1RS chromosome and the specific nuclear–alloplasm interaction impaired the pairing of homologous chromosome in the background of the specific Aegilops cytoplasm at MMI. In addition, the frequency of abnormal chromosomal pairing was directly affected by the frequency of haploid production induced by parthenogenesis. The results of this study provide significant insights into the mechanism of parthenogenesis, which is probably due to the abnormal fertilization of synergid cells in alloplasmic 1BL/1RS wheat.