Extracts from lo-han-kuo (Siraitia grosvenorii) are of high sweetness and low calories, and they have been widely used as a natural sweetener to reduce the risk of obesity and diabetes. In the current study, lo-han-kuo extracts were extracted using subcritical water under different operation condition. The study revealed that the optimal extracting parameters were: extraction time of 20 min, extraction temperature of 140 °C, and the addition of 15% ethanol. Antioxidant activity, contents of total flavonoids, and total phenolic compounds of lo-han-kuo extracts were also investigated. A mathematical model was established to describe the relationship between antioxidant capacity and content of bioactive components in lo-han-kuo extract, and it was found that antioxidant capacity of the extracts was mainly attributed to the yields of total mogrosides (P<0.05).
Polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube (PANI/MWNT) composites were prepared by in situ polymerization. Transmission electron
microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were used to characterize the PANI/MWNT composites.
Thermal stability and glass transition temperature (Tg) were measured by thermogravimetry (TG) and temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC), respectively.
The TG and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) curves indicated that with augment of MWNTs content, the thermal stability of
PANI/MWNT composites increased continuously. While, Tg increased and then decreased with the MWNTs content increasing from 0 to 20 mass%.
The isothermal crystallization and subsequent melting behavior of one propylene homopolymer and three propylene-1-decene copolymers
with different comonomer contents prepared by metallocene catalyst were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).
It is found that the Avrami exponent of the propylene copolymers decreases gradually with the increase of comonomer content,
from 3.0 for the propylene homopolymer to 1.4 for the copolymer with 7.83 mol% 1-decene units. Higher comonomer content also
weakens the dependence of crystallization rate constant and crystallization halftime on temperature. Double melting peaks,
which correspond to α and γ crystal phases, respectively, are observed for all copolymers under isothermal crystallization.
The result shows that higher crystallization temperature is favorable to the segregation of α and γ crystal phases, resulting
in higher proportion of γ crystal phase.
The calorimetric data of blended shrinkage-compensating binders with different compositions were measured at 25C at different
water-binder ratios using an isothermal calorimeter. The hydration characteristics of shrinkage-compensating binders were
evaluated and their influence on the expansive properties of blended shrinkage-compensating binders was determined. Composition
and w/b ratio significantly affect the hydration rate and degree of shrinkage-compensating binders, as well as their expansive
and mechanical properties. The total heat of hydration of binders decreases with w/c ratios. Its final hydration degree also
decreases with w/c ratio. The ternary binders composed with Portland cement, mineral admixture and expansive agent show low
hydration heat and rate of heat evolution, but their total heat of hydration increases continuously and surpasses that of
binary binder in later period at low w/b ratio.
Authors:L. N. Xu, F. Y. Gai, G. F. Mu, Y. Gao, H. T. Liu, and F. Luan
Formaldehyde in aquatic products was determined by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Separation was carried out at 25 °C and 25 kV, using a fused silica capillary (75 µ internal diameter; 50.5 cm effective length) and an ultraviolet detector set at 360 nm. The optimal background electrolyte was 20 mM sodium tetraborate and 20 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate at pH 9.0 with 3 s hydrodynamic injection at 30 mbar. Electrophoretic analysis took approximately 6.5 min. The correlation coefficient of the calibration curve was 0.999 over the concentration range 2.0–100.0 mg L−1, and the LOD and LOQ values were 0.57 and 1.89 µg mL−1, respectively. The recoveries were from 83.7% to 97.2% with steam distillation as the sample pretreatment method.
Polyphenols in Chinese Kushui rose (Rosa sertata × Rosa rugosa) leaves were first extracted and analysed in this study. Among four fractions (ethyl ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water layer) of crude extracts, the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest ABTS•+ scavenging activity, and the n-butanol fraction exhibited the maximum components in composition. On-line HPLC-ABTS•+ analysis indicated that there were more than 30 antioxidant compounds from Chinese Kushui rose leaves. The identified polyphenols could be classified into quercetin derivatives, gallic acid derivatives, and proanthocyanidins. Gallic acid was the most antioxidative compound.
Polyaniline/α-Al2O3 (PANI/α-Al2O3) composites were synthesized by in situ polymerization through ammonium persulfate ((NH4)2S2O8, APS) oxidized aniline using HCl as dopant. XRD and FTIR were used to characterize the PANI/α-Al2O3 composites. The thermal stabilities and glass transition temperature (Tg) of PANI/α-Al2O3 composites were tested using thermogravimetric (TG) method and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) technique.
The results of TG showed that the thermal stability of PANI/α-Al2O3 composite increased and then decreased with the increase in α-Al2O3 content. The derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) curves showed one step degradation of PANI when the α-Al2O3 content was lower than 52.5 mass%, and exhibited two steps degradation when the α-Al2O3 content was higher than 63.6 mass%. The MDSC curves showed that the Tg of PANI/α-Al2O3 composites increased and then decreased with the augment of α-Al2O3 for the interaction between PANI chains and the surface of α-Al2O3.
Authors:L. Yang, F. Xu, L. Sun, Z. Zhao, and C. Song
Microcalorimetry was applied to study the effect of cephalosporins (cefazolin sodium and cefonicid sodium) on the E. coli growth. The microbial activity was recorded as power-time curves through an ampoule method with a TAM Air Isothermal Microcalorimeter
at 37°C. The parameters such as the growth rate constant (k), inhibitory ratio (I), the maximum power output (Pm) and the time corresponding to the maximum power output (tm) were calculated. The change tendencies of k, with the increasing of concentration (C) of the two cephalosporins, are similar which show that cefazolin sodium and cefonicid sodium have the same inhibitory mechanism.
The experimental results reveal that cefonicid sodium has a stronger antibacterial activity towards E. coli than that of cefazolin sodium and this was coincide with the clinical manifestations.
Microcalorimetry was applied to study the toxic action of two cobalt compounds such as bis(salicylideniminato-3-propyl)methylaminocobalt(II)
(denoted as Co(II)) and Co(III) sepulchrate trichloride (denoted as Co(sep)3+) on (E. coli) DH5α. The power-time curves of the E. coli DH5α growth were determined, and the thermokinetics parameters such as the growth rate constant k, the maximum power output Pm and the time (tm) corresponding to the Pm were obtained. The half-inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of Co(II) and Co(sep)3+ to E. coli DH5α were 15 and 42.1 mg mL−1, respectively.
The experimental results revealed that the toxicity of the Co(II) compound was larger than that of Co(sep)3+. On the other hand, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated that the two cobalt compounds had the same toxic
mechanism on E. coli DH5α, which was attributed to the damage of cell wall of the bacteria caused by both Co(II) and Co(sep)3+. Furthermore, accumulation of intracellular cobalt of E. coli DH5α, due to the interaction of Co(II) or Co(sep)3+ and E. coli DH5α, has been found by using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analytical technique.
Effects of gaseous hydrogenation on crystallization behavior of melt-spun Mg63Pr15Ni22 amorphous ribbons have been investigated. The crystallization peak temperature Tp1 shifted to higher temperature with increasing heating rate for the un-hydrogenated Mg63Ni22Pr15 metallic glass, however, it is nearly unchanged for the hydrogenated sample. The present work indicates that the crystallization
is a nucleation-and-growth process for the un-hydrogenated Mg63Ni22Pr15 metallic glass. However, the crystallization of hydrogenated sample begins with nucleation and then diffusion-controlled
growth takes place.