Pust' Ej (j =1,2) - lokal'no vypuklye prostranstva funktsii, odnoznachnykh i lokal'no analiticheskikh na nekotorom mnozhestve Q ⊂ℂ. Pust', dalee, m(E1,E2) - mnozhestvo vsekh mul'tiplikatorov pary E1, E2 i L (E1, E2) sovokupnost' vsekh lineinykh operatorov, deistvuyushchikh iz E1 v E2. V stat'e e pri opredelennykh predpolozheniyakh poluchen kriterii predstavleniya operatora T iz L (E1, E2), kommutiruyushchego s fiksirovannym elementom a∊m(E1,E1) ∩m(E2,E2), v kanonicheskoi forme Ty = b y, gde b∊m(E1,E2). Obsuzhdayutsya predpolozheniya, pri kotorykh poluchen kriterii, i privodyatsya primery, pokazyvayushchie ikh sushchestvennost'.
On the basis of a qualitative theory the phonon spectrum is obtained. Two- and three phonon interactions are examined. The theoretical results are applied for the analysis of the experimental data: for heat conduction, dielectric relaxation, heat capacity.
Radiative heat transfer could be a significant contribution to the total heat transfer within the highly porous materials. This article reports on the use of a conventional instrument, viz. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, for the characterization of radiative heat properties of fiber assemblies with low bulk densities. Experimental measurements on spectral transmission with FTIR were performed on five types of fiber assemblies commonly used for insulating materials. From the measurements, radiative heat conductivity was determined by calculating extinction coefficient using Beer's Law and applying the diffusion approximation approach. Bulk density, fiber arrangement, and temperature influences to radiative heat transfer were discussed. Results show that radiative heat conductivity decreases with bulk density and that of the random arranged fiber assemblies shows lower radiative heat conductivity than the random ball and parallel arranged fiber assemblies. Radiative heat conductivity is proportional to the cubic temperature. The existing theoretical model was modified by comparing theoretical and experimental radiative heat conductivity results.
The use of complexons: nitrilotriacetic (NTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic (DTPA) acids have been studied in extraction systems with main classes of neutral organo phosphorus extractants: phosphates (tributyl phosphate-TBP), phosphonate (diisooctylmethyl phosphonate-DiOMP) and phosphine oxides (triisoamylphosphineoxide-TiAPO) to separate lanthanides of the Ce subgroup. Optimal conditions to use complexon have been determined (extractant and salting agent concentrations). The effect of the type of extractant on the lanthanide distribution coefficients' dependence on pH of equilibrium water solution have been studied in the presence of NTA and DTPA. Unextractable cation displacers have been used to regulate distribution coefficients. The values of lanthanide separation coefficients of Ce group have been determined in extraction systems with neutral phosphorus-containing extraction agents — complexon — salting agent compared with Nd macroconcentrations and for lanthanide microconcentrations in the presence of cation displacer. These systems have been shown to be suitable for lanthanide separation of the cerium group.
Recruitment limitation has been hypothesized to promote the maintenance of high species diversity in forests by slowing down competitive exclusion. However, the difference of recruitment limitation for tree species with varying seed masses, which is a common phenomenon in tropical or subtropical forests, is largely unknown. In this study we conducted a seed sowing experiment for five dominant tree species with varying seed mass (a proxy of dispersal ability) in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest at different successional stages to test the hypothesis that the determinants of species recruitment vary with their seed masses in Heishiding Nature Reserve (Guangdong Province, China). The effects of seed predators, soil pathogens, light conditions, plant litter, seed additions, and the presence of adult conspecific trees on the performance of seeds and seedlings for the five species were examined. We particularly investigated the effects of habitat hazards and seed size on the relative importance of dispersal limitation and establishment limitation. The results show that all five sowing species experienced recruitment limitation at the microsite level, although the causes of the limitation of these species varied between pathogen infection, animal predation, litter covering and shading. Seedling recruitment of the wind-dispersed, small-seeded species was mostly limited by microsite condition, while large-seeded species were mostly limited by dispersal ability.
Fractal theory has been proved effective to characterize the complex pore structure. In this article, the fractal method is utilized to study the structure property of fibrous assemblies. The box dimension parameter is applied to characterize the pore structure of fibrous assemblies by analyzing the electronic scanning microscope images of the fibrous assemblies. Furthermore, a fractal model for predicting effective heat conductivity is established. Experiment is conducted to verify the model, and good agreement is found between the experimental and theoretical results. The fractal model is also compared with the previous models for predicating heat conductivity, and the former is proved to be more accurate.
Authors:V. M. Egorov, Yu. M. Baykov, V. A. Bershtein, Yu. P. Stepanov, and F. A. Chudnovskii
DSC investigations have been performed for a series of compounds Ba2YCu3Oy with the oxygen content varying in the rangey=6.0...6.9 by means of various heat treatments at 800–1200 K followed by quenching, or through the chemical extraction of oxygen by placing the sample in dihydrogen at 470–490 K. The sample preserving a constant oxygen content during heating in nitrogen exhibited exothermal effects between 450 and 850 K. It has been shown that the ΔH vs. y function reaches maximum aty ≈ 6.5. Kinetic measurements have shown that the diffusive mobility of oxygen atoms in the lattice is responsible for these effects, viz. the Arrhenius and cooperative processes of reorganization in the non-equilibrium oxygen subsystem of the bulk.
Authors:A. E. Venger, Yu. E. Fraiman, and F. B. Yurevich
The applicability of the traditional kinetic power equation to describe the thermal destruction of solids, and in particular polymers, is discussed. It is shown that in the majority of cases the use of such an equation is reasonable, even though the true mechanism of the process under study is either obscure or so complex that it cannot be analytically described in detail. In such cases the effective rather than the true kinetic parameters are obtained and provide certain useful information on the process.
Small-scale vegetation patterns are frequently the results of plant-plant interactions such as facilitation and competition. Facilitation should be particularly pronounced when both abiotic and biotic stresses are high, but few studies were conducted in such habitats. In heavily-grazed pastures on the eastern Tibetan Plateau, an area with both high abiotic stress and strong biotic disturbance, we made relevés of herb species both beneath and outside canopies of three shrub species (Spiraea alpina, Sibiraea angustata and Potentilla fruticosa) differing in palatability and canopy structure. Herb species richness (S), pooled cover (PC) of all species, number of flowering species (FS) and number of inflorescences of all species (IN) were greater outside than beneath the shrub canopies. Evenness (J), in contrast, was smaller outside, while Shannon’s diversity index (H) was the same. Differences in S and J between plots beneath and outside the shrub canopies were greater in the case of P. fruticosa than in the cases of S. angustata and S. alpina, but differences in PC, FS or IN did not depend on the shrub species. Among the common species (frequency ≥6), 47–85% were equally frequent beneath and outside the shrubs, 13–39% were more frequent outside and 3–13% were more frequent beneath the shrubs. For the rarest species (frequency < 6), however, more species occurred beneath than outside the shrubs. The ordination diagram showed a clear separation between the relevés outside and beneath the shrubs and a gradient from P. fruticosa via S. alpina to S. angustata, accompanied by a distinct decrease in the extent of the difference between the vegetation beneath and outside the shrub canopies. In conclusion, the three shrub species facilitated some species in the herb layer and each shrub species had a specific impact, related to its canopy structure and palatability but also to the grazing pressure, which was greater around the P. fruticosa shrubs than around S. alpina and S. angustata.
Authors:F. Zantuti, S. Ivanova, Yu. Novikov, and B. Myasoedov
Conditions for neptunium recovery from nitrate solution containing large amounts of uranium by extraction with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazolone-5 (PMBP), and a mixture of PMBP with di-2-ethyl-hexylphosphoric acid (HDEHP) were studied. A two-stage technique, based on removal of uranium macroamounts at the first stage by means of extraction of uranium with PMBP and HDEHP mixture, and neptunium extraction by PMBP at the second stage, was suggested.