This theoretical paper argues, firstly, that eye contact could serve as a method of signaling attraction and, secondly, could be misinterpreted and lead into sexual coercion. On the basis of these discussions, it is therefore hypothesized that eye covering practices in some cultures serve as mate guarding strategies to decrease the probability of infidelity and sexual coercion by potential mate poachers. In other words, eye concealing practices could be considered a mate retention tactic used by males to prevent rival males from misinterpreting the eye gaze of their spouses, or to prevent their spouses from sending genuine signals of sexual interest, as men cannot misinterpret what they cannot see.
Waist-to-chest (WCR) and waist-to-shoulder (WSR) ratios are good predictors of male physical attractiveness and women have been shown to prefer higher waist-to-hip ratios (WHR) in men. This study addresses relationships between men's body shapes and their feelings about appearance, weight and how others perceive them. The experimental results reported here demonstrate relationships between Iranian men's shoulder-to-hip ratio (SHR) and WHR on self-reported body esteem and self-efficacy. Increases of SHR and WHR in these men were positively correlated with body esteem and increases of SHR with general self-efficacy. BMI was not correlated with either. These findings are interpreted in reference to men's preferences for feminine ranges of WHR regardless of actual biological sex in relation to varying preferences that have been found cross-culturally and to self-perceived masculinity in relation to their mate and coalitional membership value.