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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Hasan Selcuk Ozger, Ebru Evren, Serap Suzuk Yildiz, Cigdem Erol, Fatma Bayrakdar, Ozlem Azap, Alpay Azap, and Esin Senol

Abstract

This study aimed to detect carbapenemase genes and to determine the in vitro susceptibility of Ceftazidime-Avibactam (CZA) in Enterobacterales isolates. Carbapenemase genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction. CZA sensitivity of isolates was evaluated with broth microdilution (BMD) and disk diffusion methods. A total of 318 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales isolates were included. Most of the isolates (n = 290, 91.2%) were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae. The most common carbapenemase type was OXA-48 (n = 82, 27.6%). CZA susceptibility was evaluated in 84 isolates with OXA-48 and KPC carbapenemase activity. Both BMD and disk diffusion methods revealed that 95.2% of the isolates were sensitive to CZA; whereas, 4 (4.76%) isolates were resistant to CZA. Among colistin resistant isolates, 96.5% (n = 80) of them were susceptible to CZA. Our study demonstrated high in vitro efficacy of CZA in Enterobacterales isolates producing OXA-48 carbapenemase. High susceptibility rates against colistin resistant isolates which generally are also pan drug resistant, makes CZA a promising therapeutic choice for difficult-to-treat infections. Due to its high correlation with the BMD, disk diffusion method is a suitable and more practical method in detecting CZA in vitro activity.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Gulay Korukluoglu, Umit Ozdemirer, Fatma Bayrakdar, Zehra Unal, Yasemin Cosgun, Tunca Atak, Hulya Karademirtok, Isil Ata, and Fatih Kara

Abstract

Poliomyelitis was a disease feared worldwide, striking suddenly and paralysing mainly children for life. Monitoring of suspected cases of poliomyelitis is carried out with Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance in Turkey. This study examines national data of AFP surveillance and the epidemiology of enteroviruses (EV) in Turkey from 2000 to 2019 and gives an overview of the detected serotypes of EVs. A total of 13,640 samples collected from patients with 5216 AFP pre-diagnosed cases (2 samples from each patient) and 3,208 contacts, during a 20-year period (2000–2019) were investigated. All isolated polioviruses were tested for their wild or vaccine origin according to the WHO recommended protocol by PCR and sequencing analysis were performed. Enterovirus positivity was detected in a total of 915 cases, which were identified as 204 Sabin-like polio virus (SLPV) and 711 non-polio enterovirus (NPEV). Of the 204 SLPV, 141 (69.1%) AFP were detected in patients and 63 (30.9%) were detected in samples taken from their contacts. Of the 711 NPEVs, 516 (72.5%) were from AFP cases and 195 (27.5%) were detected in samples taken from their contacts. It is concluded that the reason for the higher detection rate of NPEV in samples from AFP pre-diagnosed cases is attributed to the polio vaccination rates reaching 97% between 2008 and 2019 in Turkey. The most frequently detected NPEV serotypes were Coxackie A24, B3, and Echo 30. This retrospective study is the first comprehensive study in Turkey to evaluate the results of the AFP surveillance in the last 20 years.

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