Authors:Elisabetta Oddo, Gianni Russo and Francesca Grisafi
Using brackish water for irrigation may expose turfgrasses to salinity stress. Employing the best treatments to maintain high-quality turfs under saline conditions is an important requirement for turfgrass management.
We tested the response of a halophyte grass, Puccinellia distans, to irrigation with saline solutions and to foliar application of two osmoprotectants, such as glycine betaine (GB) or chitosan (CH). Plants were grown in pots under controlled conditions and irrigated with 200 mM or 600 mM of NaCl solutions. The response to salinity treatments and osmoprotectant application was evaluated after 90 days by measuring leaf firing, leaf density, shoot length and biomass, root length, and shoot water potential.
Increasing salinity reduced shoot density, shoot and root length, shoot water potential, and increased leaf firing and shoot solute potential at 200 mM of NaCl. These effects were more pronounced at 600 mM of NaCl. Application of GB greatly increased shoot growth traits at 200 mM of NaCl and also showed beneficial effects on most traits at 600 mM. Application of CH showed positive effects only on leaf firing and leaf water potential at 600 mM.
Our results show that P. distans can tolerate high levels of salt stress, which can be best alleviated by GB treatment.
Authors:Francesca Grisafi, Elisabetta Oddo, Maria Letizia Gargano, Simone Inzerillo, Gianni Russo and Giuseppe Venturella
The choice of stress resistant and highly adaptable species is a fundamental step for landscaping and ornamental purposes in arid and coastal environments such as those in the Mediterranean basin. The genus Tamarix L. includes about 90 species with a high endurance of adversity. We investigated the water relations and photosynthetic response of Tamarix arborea (Sieb. ex Ehrenb.) Bge. var. arborea and T. parviflora DC. growing in an urban environment. Both species showed no evidence of drought or salt stress in summer, and appeared to follow two strategies with T. arborea var. arborea investing in high carbon gain at the beginning of the summer, and then reducing photosynthetic activity at the end of the season, and T. parviflora showing lower but constant levels of photosynthetic activity throughout the vegetative season. For landscaping and ornamental purposes, we suggest T. arborea var. arborea when a fast-growing, high-cover species is necessary, and T. parviflora when less-invasive species are required.