Out of the three wooden statues exhibited in the Hungarian National Gallery as a rood group from Spisska Belá (Szepesbéla), only the Christ on the Cross is appropriately designated. As for the two thieves, both the provenance and the style suggest that originally they were set up somewhere around Banská Bystrica (Besztercebánya): they can be attributed to the workshop of the Pukanec (Bakabánya) high altar. The style of this workshop can be traced to Veit Stoss's Cracow workshop on the basis not only of borrowed motifs but also of the paintings of the Pukanec high altar. The present paper adds to these paintings the original fixed wings. Similarly to Stoss's workshop in Cracow, the workshop of the Pukanec high altar probably also employed a permanent polychrome painter.
When placed side by side with the corresponding statues in the Crucifixion group of eight figures in the shrine of the Pukanec high altar, the Budapest statues appear to be workshop replicas. The original altarpiece from which they possibly originate may also be taken for a workshop copy. Together with the Crucifix and St John the Evangelist in the museum of Banská Bystrica, the thieves are probably identical with the remains of the Crucifixion altarpiece once at the threshold of the sanctuary of the parish church of Ľubietová. The comparison of the two altarpieces outlines the practice of serial production in the workshop whose leader balanced off his modest sculptural talent with multifigural, easily varied compositional schemes.
About 1500 the parish church of Banská Bystrica (Besztercebánya, Neusohl) was a site of formidable building works that consisted however in the dispersion of some isolated modernization campaigns. The sculptural decoration – which has a high artistic quality unusual for the region – also accentuated the modernized parts and at the same time it harmonised the older parts with them by veining the building joints. The most operations can be attributed to the initiatives of Michael Königsberger, an exponent of the old ruling class of the town, who lost ground after the establishment of the Thurzó-Fugger Company in the late 15th
Authors:Orsolya Balogh, Hedvig Fébel, Gyula Huszenicza, Margit Kulcsár, Zsolt Abonyi-Tóth, Tamás Endrődi, and György Gábor
The aim of this study was to identify relationships among seasonal differences of fertility, metabolic parameters and appearance of irregular luteal forms in high-yielding dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian cows were put on the Provsynch regimen in winter (n = 10) and in summer (n = 10). Blood sampling (starting 35 days post partum) and rectal ultrasound examinations (starting post insemination) were carried out once a week in each examination period. Metabolic [plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and serum beta-carotene] and endocrine parameters [plasma thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and insulin levels] were measured. In summer, two cows were excluded from the study because of metritis and none of the remaining animals became pregnant, but 6 of the 8 cows had irregular luteal forms (ILF) on their ovaries. In winter, one cow was excluded because of metritis and 6 of the 9 cows became pregnant, while 2 of the 3 open cows had irregular luteal forms. In summer the mean plasma NEFA and BHB concentrations were significantly higher, while serum carotene and plasma IGF-I concentrations were significantly lower than in winter. The high plasma NEFA concentration found in summer seemed to be in association with the lower body condition score (BCS) caused by depressed appetite. In conclusion, statistical analysis supports the hypothesis that increased plasma NEFA and BHB and decreased plasma IGF-I concentrations may result in reduced fertility in summer. These changes may be associated with the more frequent appearance of ILFs and probably have a negative effect on ovarian function and/or oocyte quality.