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  • Author or Editor: Gábor Székely x
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Molnár et al. (2015) reported two types of echinostomatid metacercariae in the lateral line organ of Hungarian fish species. Type 1 metacercariae possessed 27 collar spines and 16 uniform and three larger dorsal spines, whereas Type 2 metacercariae bore 27 collar spines and 19 equal-sized dorsal spines. In the recent work, molecular studies carried out on the ITS region and partial 28S rDNA sequences of two types of echinostomatid metacercariae and the sequences of adult stages of the species of Petasiger Dietz, 1909 collected from cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo L.) showed that some of the Type 2 metacercariae corresponded to Petasiger exaeretus Dietz, 1909, whereas other morphologically similar metacercariae were identified as Petasiger phalacrocoracis (Yamaguti, 1939). The sequences of the Type 1 metacercariae with three larger dorsal spines could not be identified with any of the known sequences from echinostomatid trematodes.

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During a survey on the Myxobolus infection of two cyprinid fishes, the ide (Leuciscus idus) and the roach (Rutilus rutilus), myxosporean developmental stages were found around the arteries of the gill filaments and in the gill lamellae. An analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences of these stages revealed that plasmodia developing in the ide belonged to Myxobolus elegans, those developing in the gill lamellae of the roach corresponded to M. intimus, while plasmodia developing in close contact with the cartilaginous gill rays proved to be developmental stages of M. feisti. A strict seasonal cycle with a very long intrapiscine development was recorded for M. elegans and M. intimus. Developing plasmodia of the latter Myxobolus spp. occurred from early summer to next spring, and spore formation took place only in April. No seasonality associated with M. feisti infections was found. Developing plasmodia and mature spores of this species occurred simultaneously in different seasons of the year. Myxobolus feisti spore formation always occurred in close contact with the cartilaginous tissue of the gill filaments but spores were rarely encapsulated in the cartilaginous gill rays.

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Absztrakt

Hörgőrák miatt jobb felső tüdőlebeny resectióján átesett beteg kemoirradiatiós kezelésének szövődményeként tüdőfibrosis, fenyegető tüdőgangraena lépett fel. Jobb oldali pneumonectomiára kényszerültünk, amely után késői hörgőcsonkkinyílás, empyema alakult ki. Esetünk ismertetésével azt kívánjuk bemutatni, hogy súlyos iatrogén ártalommal járó onkoradiológiai kezelés milyen szövődményláncolatot idézett elő, és mik voltak azok a terápiás eszközök, amelyek 3 év után a beteg gyógyulásához vezettek.

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In a cultured pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) stock the monopisthocotylean monogenean gill parasite Ancyrocephalus paradoxus caused heavy infection and mortalities. The gills of the affected fish specimens were infected by 50 to 800 monogenean parasites. Severe pathological changes were found in areas where the worms attached to the gills. At the attachment sites the haptoral discs of the worms formed a deep depression in the epithelium of the filaments, and the anchors pierced into and fixed themselves to the connective tissue of the cartilaginous gill rays. At these attachment sites red blood cells released from injured capillaries were found among the damaged epithelial cells. Around the hooks, anchors and body sections coming into contact with the gill filaments a proliferative tissue developed in which only a remnant of the damaged lamellae was found. Due to the damage caused by the worms the tips of the heavily infected gill filaments fused, formed clubs and were composed of epitheloid-type regeneration tissue lacking respiratory lamellae. In the basal parts of the filaments, where most of the worms attached to the gill, only denuded filaments deprived of lamellae were observed among the cross-sectioned worms in histological sections.

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Az emberi légúti óriássejtes vírus (hRSV) a csecsemő- és kisgyermekkori légúti fertőzések, járványok egyik leggyakoribb kórokozója világszerte. A hRSV molekuláris epidemiológiája nem ismert hazánkban, ma azonban már lehetőség van a vírus genetikai szintű kimutatására és nyomon követésére e módszerrel. Célkitűzés: A szerzők célja a hRSV molekuláris kimutatása és a vírusok genetikai elemzése volt gyermekkori légúti fertőzésekből hazánkban. Módszer: A garatmosó folyadékok a mosdósi kórházban kezelt 10 év alatti, légúti fertőzésben szenvedő gyermekektől származtak két légúti szezonból (2005/2006 és 2006/2007) október 15. és május 15. között. A klinikai és epidemiológiai adatokat prospektív módon, formanyomtatványokon gyűjtöttük. A virális RNS fúziós (F) és glikoprotein (G) génjének felsokszorozását RT-PCR módszerrel végeztük, majd a termékeket szekvenáltuk és filogenetikailag elemeztük. Eredmények: A 104 légúti mintából 23 (22,1%) – 16 fiú (69,6%) és 7 lány (30,4%) – tartalmazott hRSV-t (az első szezonban: 1/49, 2%; a második szezonban: 22/55, 40%). A hRSV-fertőzések december és március között történtek. Az átlagéletkor 2,1 év (1 hónap–8 év) volt. A vezető tünetek a következők voltak: orrfolyás, láz, köhögés és légúti nehezítettség. A hRSV-fertőzött gyermekek 39,1%-ának voltak alapbetegségei. Az F-régió alapján 22 (96%) vírusgenetikailag az A típusba tartozott, 1 (4%) a B típusba volt sorolható. A 11 A típusú vírus közül 8 (72,7%) a GA5-ös, 3 (27,3%) a GA2-es csoportba tartozik a G-régió alapján. A vírusok nukleotidsorrendje több esetben azonos volt. Következtetések: A közleményben a hRSV két típusának (A és B) – tudomásunk szerint – első hazai, közvetlen molekuláris kimutatásáról és elemzéséről számolunk be, 10 éven aluli gyermekek légúti fertőzéseiből. A hRSV a gyermekkori, elsősorban a csecsemőkori kórházi kezelést igénylő légúti fertőzések jelentős kóroki tényezője a téli-tavaszi hónapokban.

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Abstract

Abstract

The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is one of the major causes of respiratory infection of infants and children worldwide. The molecular epidemiology of hRSV is unknown in Hungary.

Aims

Our aims were the molecular detection and genetic analysis of hRSV from childhood respiratory infections in Hungary.

Materials and methods

Nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from children under the age of 10 years with acute respiratory infections were provided by Pediatric Department of the Hospital for Chest Diseases in Mosdós. Samples were taken from 15 October to 15May in seasons 2005/2006 and 2006/2007. The clinical and epidemiological data were collected prospectively. The amplification of the surface fusion glycoprotein (F) and the attachment glycoprotein (G) genes of viral RNA was made by RTPCR method. PCR-products were sequenced and analyzed by phylogenetic analysis.

Results

Nasopharyngeal aspirates of 104 children were examined out of which 23 (22.1%) samples — 16 males (69.6%) and 7 females (30.4%) — (first season: 1/49, 2%; second season: 22/55, 40%) contained hRSV. The hRSV infections were taking place from December to March. The average age was 2.1 years (1 month to 8 years). The leading symptoms were dropping nose, fever, cough and wheezing. 39.1% of the hRSV infected children had underlying diseases. Based upon the F region, 22 (96%) viruses genetically belonged to the type A and 1 (4%) was classified as type B hRSV. Based upon the G region out of the 11 type A viruses 8 (72.7%) belonged to group GA5 and 3 (27.3%) to group GA2. Viral nucleotide sequence was identical in several cases.

Conclusions

To our knowledge, this is the first report on molecular detection and genetic analysis of the two types (A and B) of hRSV of children under the age of 10 with respiratory infections in Hungary. In winter and spring hRSV is an important cause of childhood respiratory infections particularly in infants, which often require hospitalization.

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Abstract

The River Tisza is one of Central Europe's most important rivers. In the last one and a half century numerous anthropogenic activities have influenced its watershed. As a result measures need to be taken to protect its water quality, necessitating a comprehensive picture of the spatial and temporal variability of its processes, which this study aims to extend further. In this study five sampling locations were analyzed in the upper section of the Tisza over the time interval 1974–2005, dealing with 24 parameters using multi-variate data analysis methods. Employing time series analysis and taking the river's tributaries into account, the strong influence of the River Szamos was pointed out, while stochastic connections indicated the influence of the Tiszalök Water Barrage System on the spatial variation of the Tisza's processes. Finally, by using principal component analysis (PCA), the different background factors were revealed in space and time (seasonal separation) as well. During summer the processes tended to be nitrogen-related, while during winter inorganic compounds play a greater role. Most importantly, spatial variety was observable in the factors.

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Infection of the cornea in fishes by Myxobolus plasmodia is a common but still little known site preference of myxosporeans. A sporadic but striking infection in the cornea of the roach (Rutilus rutilus) was observed in Lake Balaton, Hungary. Relatively small, round plasmodia 250 to 500 μm in diameter developed in the dense connective tissue of the cornea. Morphological and molecular biological examination of spores collected from cysts in the cornea demonstrated that this infection is caused by Myxobolus fundamentalis, a species hitherto reported only from the cartilaginous gill arch of the roach. The 18S rDNA sequences of spores from the cornea showed 99.9% identity to the sequences of spores from the gill arch, and they also shared 99.9% identity with the sequences of triactinomyxon actinospores obtained from the oligochaete Isochaetides michaelseni.

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The aim of the present study is to extend the applicability of MRI measurements similar to those used in human diagnostics to the examination of water barriers in living plants, thus broadening their use in natural sciences. The cucumber, Cucumis sativus, and Phillyrea angustifolia, or false olive, were chosen as test plants. The MRI measurements were carried out on three samples of each plant in the same position vis-a-vis the MRI apparatus using a Siemens Avanto MRI scanner. Two different relaxation times were employed, T1, capable of histological mapping, and T2, used for the examination of water content. In the course of the analysis, it was found that certain histological formations and branching cause modifications to the intensity detected with relaxation time T2. Furthermore, these positions can also be found in T1 measurements. A monotonic correlation (cucumber: ρ = 0.829; false olive: ρ = –0.84) was observed between the T1 and T2 measurements. In the course of the statistical analysis of the signal intensities of the xylems it was concluded that they cannot be regarded as independent in a statistical sense; these changes rather depend on the anatomic structure of the plant, as the intensity profile is modified by nodes, leaves and branches. This serves as a demonstration of the applicability of MRI to the measurement of well know plant physiological processes. The special parametrization required for this equipment, which is usually used in human diagnostics, is also documented in the present study.

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Absztrakt:

Bevezetés: Arteficiális arterio-venosus fisztula okozta steal szindróma és következményes distalis ischaemia az arterio-venosus fisztula (AVF) sebészet egyik legsúlyosabb szövődménye, mely a műtétek 1–8%-ában fordul elő. A szövődményt hagyományosan nehéz kezelni anélkül, hogy a fisztulát elvesztenénk. Kezelési opciók között van a fisztula ligaturája, a fisztula szűkítése (banding), distalis revascularisatio az AVF áthidalásával és az anastomosis alatti arteria ligaturájával (distal revascularisation with interval ligation – DRIL), az arteriás beáramlás proximalizálása (proximalisation of the arterial inflow – PAI) és az arteriás beáramlás distalizációja (revision using distal inflow – RUDI).

Egy 45 éves fiatal nő esetét mutatjuk be, akinek 5 hónappal a bal oldali cubitalis AVF kialakítását követően necrosist okozó ischaemiája alakult ki a bal felső végtagján. AVF megtartása érdekében az ischaemia megszüntetésére RUDI-műtétet végeztünk, melyhez v. basilica interpositumot használtunk fel.

A beavatkozás eredményeként ischaemiás panaszai megszűntek, dialízisét megszakítani nem kellett, újabb vasculáris hozzáférés kialakítása nem vált szükségessé.

Az arteriás beáramlás distalizációja (RUDI) könnyen kivitelezhető, jó eredményeket biztosító eljárás, melynek kivitelezéséhez a vena basilica graft felhasználása igen kézenfekvő megoldás.

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