During the reconquest of the barbarian-held western provinces, in his effort to establish religious unity in the Byzantine Empire, Emperor Justinian — his powers extended — issued secular decrees to sanction the decisions of bishops, making his own creed compulsory for Catholics. In the 530s he was constantly faced with the dilemma of whether to join the western church, which honoured the decisions of the Council of Chalcedon, or to reconcile himself to the Monophysites, popularised by Alexandria. As Theodora had an affinity for the Monophysites, Justinian changed his attitude several times. However, both his violent methods and his frequent replacement of clerical leaders contributed to the fact that instead of an agreement, an ultimate schism occurred between the two groups.
Authors:Nikoletta Nagy, Győző Szolnoky, Gábor Szabad, Zsuzsanna Bata-Csörgő, Attila Balogh, Gergely Klausz, János Györgyei, Yvette Mándi, Attila Dobozy, Lajos Kemény and Márta Széll
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene codes for IIIb and IIIc transcript variants, which play pivotal roles in normal wound healing. Tumor necrosis factor α mediates several biological processes including wound healing. We aimed to characterise the expression pattern of IIIb expressed by in vitro cultured keratinocytes and in skin biopsy samples of venous leg ulcer patients, and to identify polymorphisms which may play a role in the pathomechanism of prolonged wound healing in venous leg ulcer patients. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting methods were used for expression studies, polymerase chain reaction with TaqMan probes and with restriction fragment length polymorphism method were performed for polymorphism studies. We demonstrated that the expression of IIIb is related to the proliferation states of HaCaT keratinocytes and its expression is down-regulated in the uninvolved epidermis of venous leg ulcer patients (
= 15) compared to the epidermis of controls (
= 15). We identified a polymorphism in the 3’ untranslated region (2451A/G) of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene, which displayed a significant difference in the allelic distribution between leg ulcer patients (
= 82) and controls (
= 0.0103). We hypothesize that this polymorphism may be a susceptibility factor for venous leg ulcer. In another set of experiment we demonstrated that the A allele of the –308 tumor necrosis factor α polymorphism might be a potential factor for venous leg ulcer susceptibility; however, our data suggest that this association is secondary and the primary association probably exists with obesity.