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  • Author or Editor: Géza Dávid x
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The demographic history of Hungary is full with question marks, mainly due to the lack of reliable sources until the end of the 18th century. Especially, the number of the population throughout the Ottoman period (1521–1718) constituted a ‘black hole’ for a long period of time and related issues were characterized by a great number of unfounded clichés and prejudices. Identifying the best Turkish and Habsburg archival documents containing more or less detailed data on tax-payers or houses and using estimations for Transylvania where such material is missing, one can establish the total number of the population of the country at the end of the 16th century with considerable accuracy, give details about the ratios of town and village people, characterize the average number of inhabitants in rural settlements and as a whole on one km2, the proportion of depopulated villages, the ethnic composition of certain areas and occasionally even follow migration patterns between the 1540s and 1590. Unfortunately, almost no usable registers were prepared during the 17th century; therefore this time span will always remain a terra incognita, only estimations can be ventured regarding the number of inhabitants around 1700.

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The life-story of Dervis bey can be reconstructed with unusual accuracy. He came from an influential family, the Yahyapasazade clan of Albanian origin. His father, Küçük Bali ahd a house in Jagodina. Dervis must have born around 1500 since he is mentioned as a tumar-holder in the sancak of Zvornik as early as 1519. When his father became the beylerbeyi of Buda in 1542, Dervis was appointed commander of Danube flotilla, a new post created specifically for him. WhenSzeged was taken early in 1543, he was elected to be the first district governor there. On 28 January 1545, he was nominated sancakbeyi of Székesfehérvár (Isolni Belgrád). In late 1547 he was sent to administer the liva of Mohács. He held this office for almost 10 years, an exceptionally long period. His many duties can be illustrated by several hitherto unknown orders which were sent to him. At the same time, he did not forget Jagodina where he had a cami built and where – as Hans Dernschwam reported – he also setted some Hungarians. This shown by a defter of Szendro (Smederovo), in which several individuals with Hungarian names registered.             On 4 February 1557, he was appointed to Avlonya, partly as a punishment for the unsuccesfull siege of Szigetvár in 1556. Four days later, however, he was allowed to return to Szeged. As in Pécs, he was again charged with the preparation of the new cadastral suveys of some of the Hungarian snackas.             Dervis bey vanishes from sight around 1560/1561. In all kólikehood he died either in Hungary or on his way to Jagodina.

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The life-story of Derviş bey can be reconstructed with unusual accuracy. He came from an influential family, the Yahyapaşazade clan of Albanian origin. His father, Küçük Bali had a house in Jagodina. Derviş must have born around 1500 since he is mentioned as a tmar-holder in the sancak of Zvornik as early as 1519. When his father became the beylerbeyi of Buda in 1542, Derviş was appointed commander of the Danube flotilla, a new post created specifically for him. When Szeged was taken early in 1543, he was elected to be the first district governor there. On 28 January 1545, he was nominated sancakbeyi of Székesfehérvár (İstolni Belgrad). In late 1547 he was sent to administer the liva of Mohács. He held this office for almost 10 years, an exceptionally long period. His many duties can be illustrated by several hitherto unknown orders which were sent to him. At the same time, he did not forget Jagodina where he had a cami built and where – as Hans Dernschwam reported – he also settled some Hungarians. This is shown by a defter of Szendrő (Smederovo), in which several individuals with Hungarian names were registered.

On 4 February 1557, he was appointed to Avlonya, partly as a punishment for the unsuccessful siege of Szigetvár in 1556. Four days later, however, he was allowed to return to Szeged. As in Pécs, he was again charged with the preparation of the new cadastral surveys of some of the Hungarian sancaks.

Derviş bey vanishes from sight around 1560/1561. In all likelihood he died either in Hungary or on his way to Jagodina.

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The Ottomans occupied Bonyhád and its surroundings probably during the imperial campaign of 1543. The first survey of the region was made in 1546, followed by three additional ones during the 16th century (1552, 1570 and 1579). The territory under investigation first belonged to the sancak of Mohács, later to that of Pécs. Nearly all studied settlements could be found in all four defters . Thus some 20 places were categorised according to various criteria. It turned out that as far as population, the amount of taxes paid and wine-production are concerned, the market town ( oppidum ) Nádasd was the most significant. Though only a village at the time, Bonyhád also ranked among the first in several respects. The examination of settlements with mills, fairs and markets and of the number of priests yielded new results, modifying in part our knowledge of the Middle Ages.

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Archaeologiai Értesítő
Authors: Endre Tóth, László Borhy and Géza Dávid
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The significance of autonomic nerves reaching the pineal organ was already investigated in connection to the innervation of pinealocytes and mediating light information from the retina for periodic melatonin secretion. In earlier works we found that some autonomic nerve fibers are not secretomotor but terminate on arteriolar smooth muscle cells in the pineal organ of the mink (Mustela vison). Studying in serial sections the pineal organ of the mink and 15 other mammalian species in the present work, we investigated whether similar axons of vasomotor-type are generally present in the wall of pineal vessels, further, whether they reach the organ via the conarian nerves or via periarterial plexuses. In all species investigated, axons of perivasal nerve bundles were found to form terminal enlargements on the smooth muscle layer of pineal arterioles. The neuromuscular endings contain several synaptic and some granular vesicles. Axon terminals are also present around pineal veins. In serial sections, we found that the so-called conarian autonomic nerves reach the pineal organ alongside pineal veins draining into the great internal cerebral vein. Similar nerves present near arteries of the arachnoid enter the pineal meningeal capsule and septa by arterioles, both perivenous and periarterial nerves form terminals of vasomotor-type. The arteriomotor and venomotor regulation of the tone of the vessels of the pineal organ may serve the vascular support for circadian and circannual periodic changes in metabolic activity of the pineal tissue.

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Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-contacting neurons are sensory-type cells sending ciliated dendritic process into the CSF. Some of the prosencephalic CSF-contacting neurons of higher vertebrates were postulated to be chemoreceptors detecting the chemical composition of the CSF, other cells may percieve light as „deep encephalic photoreceptors". In our earlier works, CSF-contacting neurons of the mechanoreceptor-type were described around the central canal of the hagfish spinal cord. It was supposed that perceieving the flow of the CSF they are involved in vasoregulatory mechanisms of the nervous tissue. In the present work, we examined the brain ventricular system of the Atlantic hagfish with special reference to the presence and fine structure of CSF-contacting neurons. Myxinoids have an ontogenetically reduced brain ventricular system. In the adult hagfish (Myxine glutinosa) the lumen of the lateral ventricle is closed, the third ventricle has a preoptic-, infundibular and subhabenular part that are not connected to each other. The choroid plexus is absent. The infundibular part of the third ventricle has a medial hypophyseal recess and, more caudally, a paired lateral recess. We found CSF-contacting neurons in the lower part of the third ventricle, in the preoptic and infundibular recess as well as in the lateral infundibular recesses. No CSF-contacting neurons were found in the cerebral aqueduct connecting the subhabenular recess to the fourth ventricle. There is a pineal recess and a well-developed subcommissural organ at the rostral end of the aqueduct. Extending from the caudal part of the fourth ventricle in the medulla to the caudal end of the spinal cord, the central canal has a dorsal and ventral part. Dendrites of CSF-contacting neurons are protruding into the ventral lumen. Corroborating the supposed choroid plexus-like function of the wall of the dorsal central canal, segmental vessels reach a thin area on both sides of the ependymal lining. The perikarya of the CSF-contacting neurons found in the brain ventricles are mainly bipolar and contain granular vesicles of various size. The bulb-like terminal of their ventricular dendrites bears several stereocilia and contains basal bodies as well as mitochondria. Basal bodies emit cilia of the 9+0-type. Cilia may arise from the basal body and acessory basal body as well. The axons run ependymofugally and enter - partially cross - the periventricular synaptic zones. No neurohemal terminals similar to those formed by spinal CSF-contacting neurons of higher vertebrates have been found in the hagfish. We suppose that CSF-contacting neurons transform CSF-mediated non-synaptic information taken up by their ventricular dendrites to synaptic one. A light-sensitive role for some (preoptic) groups of CSF-contacting neurons cannot be excluded.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: András Jánosi, Tamás Ferenci, Zsolt Kőszegi, Gergely György Nagy, Zoltán Jambrik, Zoltán Ruzsa, Géza Lupkovics, Zoltán Csanádi, Dávid Becker, Béla Merkely and Péter Andréka

Absztrakt:

Bevezetés: A szignifikáns koszorúér-obstrukció nélkül kialakuló heveny szívinfarktus (MINOCA) gyakoriságával és prognózisával kapcsolatos adatok ellentmondóak. Célkitűzés: A MINOCA gyakoriságának és a betegek prognózisának vizsgálata nagy esetszámú, válogatás nélküli beteganyagban. Módszer: A Nemzeti Szívinfarktus Regiszter adatbázisában 45 223 akut myocardialis infarctus miatt kezelt beteg található, akiknél a kórházi felvételre 2014. január 1. és 2018. június 30. között került sor, és a kezelés során koronarográfia történt. A kórházi kezelésre 22 469 betegnél (49,7%) ST-elevációval járó (STEMI), míg 22 754 (50,3%) esetben nem ST-elevációval járó infarktus (NSTEMI) miatt került sor. A MINOCA-csoportba 2003 beteget soroltunk, akiknél a koronarográfia nem igazolt obstruktív koszorúér-betegséget, és kórelőzményükben nem volt szívinfarktus, szívelégtelenség, percutan coronariaintervenció, illetve revascularisatiós műtét. A koronarográfia 43 220 betegnél igazolt szignifikáns koszorúér-betegséget, akiket a MICAD-csoportba soroltunk. Vizsgáltuk a betegek klinikai adatait, a halálozást és a reinfarktust. A túlélést a Kaplan–Meier-módszer szerint vizsgáltuk, és Cox proporcionális hazárd modellel elemeztük. Eredmények: AMI-ban a MINOCA gyakorisága 4,4%. Eltérő gyakoriságot találtunk STEMI, illetve NSTEMI esetén (2,0% vs. 6,8%). A MINOCA-csoport betegei fiatalabbak voltak (64,0 ± 14,4 vs. 65,5 ± 12,2 év), és magasabb volt a nők előfordulási aránya (55,7 vs. 36,5%). A MICAD-betegek között gyakoribb volt a hypertonia (79,1% vs. 73,7%), a cukorbetegség (33,0% vs. 21,2%) és a perifériás érbetegség (12% vs. 8%). Az egy éven belüli reinfarktust, valamint a halálozást – minden vizsgált időpontban – a MICAD-csoportban találtuk magasabbnak. Következtetés: A MINOCA-csoporton belül a STEMI-, illetve NSTEMI-diagnózissal kezelt férfiak halálozása nem különbözött, ezzel szemben a nők esetén a STEMI-típusú infarktus esetén (MINOCA–STEMI) a nők halálozása lényegesen magasabb volt. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(45): 1791–1797.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Barbara Szémán, Géza Nagy, Tímea Varga, Anna Veres-Székely, Mária Sasvári, Dávid Fitala, Adrienn Szöllősi, Rózsa Katonai, Eszter Kotyuk and Anikó Somogyi

A cukorbetegség a kognitív hanyatlás kockázatát hozzávetőleg másfélszeresére növeli. Az eddigi adatok többsége alátámasztja, hogy a kognitív funkciók számos területe károsodhat a cukorbetegség következményeként. Az 1-es típusú cukorbetegek esetében a pszichomotoros teljesítmény, az információfeldolgozás, a mentális rugalmasság, a figyelmi funkció és a vizuális érzékelés lehet érintett. A 2-es típusú cukorbetegek esetében memóriazavarról, a pszichomotoros sebesség és végrehajtási funkciók sérüléséről számoltak be. A cukorbetegség központi idegrendszert érintő konkrét patofiziológiai változásai nem teljesen tisztázottak. Jelentősséggel bír a cukorbetegség kialakulásának ideje, a szénhidrát-anyagcsere állapota és az egyéb szövődmények jelenléte. A cukorbetegség neurológiai következményei az agy öregedési folyamatához hasonló képet mutatnak. A cukorbetegséget illetően a képalkotó vizsgálatok strukturális agyi elváltozásokat, corticalis és subcorticalis atrophiát, fokozott leukoaraiosist mutattak ki. Számos hipotézis bizonyítékokkal alátámasztva magyarázatul szolgálhat a cukorbetegség következményeként kialakuló kognitív hanyatlásra. A legfőbb feltevések hátterében a következő mechanizmusok feltételezhetőek: hyperglykaemia, hypoglykaemia, microvascularis elváltozások, inzulinrezisztencia, hyperinsulinismus, tau-fehérje hiperfoszforilációja és az amilod-β-lerakódás. Orv. Hetil., 2012, 153, 323–329.

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