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Authors: E. Kiss-Bába, S. Pánczél, K. Simonyi and G. Bisztray

Pumpkin, squash and zucchini are important vegetable crops in tropical and temperate regions. The development of genetic transformation methods offers the potential of introducing valuable traits into these crops. An efficient in vitro plant regeneration system is a critical point for genetic manipulation. The regeneration ability of three Cucurbita varieties was tested on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with different growth regulators. Cotyledons of all the varieties were cultured to investigate the effect of 2,4-D (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 mg l −1 ) with or without KIN (0, 0.5, 5 mg l −1 ) and of BA (0, 1, 1.2 mg l −1 ) combined with IAA (0, 0.9, 1, 1.2 mg l −1 ), on the efficiency of shoot induction. Abscisic acid (0.26 mg l −1 ABA) was also added to one medium. To find the most suitable combination for shoot induction, cotyledon segments of the three varieties were also cultivated on media with different concentrations of BA (0–1.2 mg l −1 ) and IAA (0–0.9 mg l −1 ). Shoot induction was achieved via organogenesis in the tested varieties. Leafy shoots were transferred to root induction media. Regenerated plantlets with roots were transferred to sterile soil. This is the first report on in vitro regeneration from cotyledon explants of the pumpkin cultivar Nagydobosi and the pattypan squash cultivar Óvári fehér.

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Authors: Zs Major, R Kirschner, N Medvegy, K Kiss, GM Török, G Pavlik, G Simonyi, Zs Komka and M Medvegy


Early repolarization in the anterior ECG leads (ERV2–4) is considered to be a sign of right ventricular (RV) remodeling, but its etiology and importance are unclear.


A total of 243 top-level endurance-trained athletes (ETA; 183 men and 60 women, weekly training hours: 15–20) and 120 leisure-time athletes (LTA; 71 men and 49 women, weekly training hours: 5–6) were investigated. The ERV2–4 sign was evaluated concerning type of sport, gender, transthoracic echocardiographic parameters, and ECG changes, which can indicate elevated RV systolic pressure [left atrium enlargement (LAE), right atrium enlargement (RAE), RV conduction defect (RVcd)].


Stroke volume and left ventricular mass were higher in ETAs vs. LTAs in both genders (p < 0.01). Prevalence of the ERV2–4 sign was significantly higher in men than in women [p = 0.000, odds ratio (OR) = 36.4] and in ETAs than in LTAs (p = 0.000). The highest ERV2–4 prevalence appeared in the most highly trained triathlonists and canoe and kayak paddlers (OR = 13.8 and 5.2, respectively). Within the ETA group, the post-exercise LAE, RAE, and RVcd changes developed more frequently in cases with than without ERV2–4 (LAE: men: p < 0.05, females: p < 0.005; RAE: men: p < 0.05, females: p < 0.005; RVcd: N.S.). These post-exercise appearing LAE, RAE, and RVcd are associated with the ERV2–4 sign (OR = 4.0, 3.7, and 3.8, respectively).


According to these results, ERV2–4 develops mainly in male ETAs due to long-lasting and repeated endurance training. The ERV2–4 sign indicates RV’s adaptation to maintain higher compensatory pulmonary pressure and flow during exercise but its danger regarding malignant arrhythmias is unclear.

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