The cypsela morphology of 5 Inula species was analysed using scanning electron microscopy. Mature cypsela of Inula shows prominent ribs. Cypsela micromorphological characters are found useful to strengthen the specific delimitation of the genus Inula from Hungary.
Pollen morphological characters of Inuleaea members have been investigated from Europe. Our work shows the results of some not well acknowledged species, e.g. I. spiraeifolia, I. hirta as well as some other members of the genus, e.g. I. britannica, I. salicina, I. helenium. Our study represents some differences between the seven species even without light microscopical analysis. The scanning electron microscopy results are encouraging for more detailed examination of the species, because of the differences between the seven species we found can be conclusive for taxonomy.
An alternative way to use small filter paper strips as wicks for tiny flowers to collect floral nectar. This method is easily handling and gives a picture from the nectar sugar production during the day and during the flowering season under natural conditions. Disadvantageous of this way it cannot be used to measure the total nectar quantity but more closely the flower visitors’ tongue in picking up nectar.
This paper gives new information about the presence of glandular and non-glandular trichomes of the florets on eight
species. The trichomes are the following: glandular, capitate, biseriate trichome with a bigger subcuticular space and also with a smaller subcuticular space; glandular, reticulate trichomes; non-glandular trichomes. The different between the species might comes from their different ecological and/or life strategy but to proof it needs further investigation.
Floral nectary characteristics of five species of Centaurea and Inula (Inula ensifolia, I. salicina, I. spiraeifolia, Centaurea micranthos, C. scabiosa) were examined for using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and the sugar contents were studied in relation to nectary morphology and plant size. The differences in the nectaries, plant size and nectar sugar content of the studied species indicate that the larger plants may reflect a greater allocation to sugar content.
We have examined nectar secretion of three Inula species (Inula spiraefolis L., I. ensifolia L., I. salicina L.) and we have established that the nectar secretion is periodical. The production maximums appear every two hours to I. spiraeifolia and there is a three hours rhytm at I. salicina. We have found a forenoon and an afternoon production section at I. ensifolia. The three Inula species nectar contains three main sugar componetnts: glucose, fructose and sucros, but their quantity values were different to each other. The nectar of I. spiraeifolia is hexose-rich (glucose-dominant), the nectar of I. ensifolia is sucrose-rich and nectar of I. salicina is sucrose-dominant.The sexual reproductionwas accented at species witch are sucrose-rich or sucrose-dominant. The vegetative reproduction seems to be dominant at hexose-rich species.
Phenoloid contents were detected, examined and compared with each other from seven composite species (Inula ensifolia L., I. salicina L., I. spiraeifolia L., I. britannica L., I. conyza DC., Centaurea scabiosa L., C. micranthos S. G. Gmel.). The six test solutions were the followings: apigenin, quercetin, hyperosid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and rutin. There were significant differences between ray and disc florets from both quantitative and qualitative results, and the species with more significant insect visiting (Inula ensifolia, I. salicina, I. spiraeifolia) have got quantitative dominance.
Authors:Erika Dósa, Ilona Dóczi, L. Mojzes, Etelka G. Molnár, J. Varga and Erzsébet Nagy
The fungal revolution taking place in otorhinology inspired us to study the frequency of occurrence of fungi in the nasal mucus of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients (with or without polyposis) in order to evaluate the incidence of eosinophilic fungal sinusitis in CRS patients. Ninety-six samples were examined from patients with CRS. In 74 cases mucus was collected non-invasively, and in 22 cases during operation. The Gram-stained direct smears of all samples were also evaluated. Bacteria and fungi colonizing in the mucus were detected by culturing method. The control group consisted of 50 healthy volunteers. Typical aerobic pathogenic bacteria could be isolated from 34 patients. Fifty-seven aerobic bacteria were isolated, i.e. 1.6 bacteria/positive patient with a maximum of 3 different bacteria/sample. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae. Yeasts and moulds could be detected from 79 patients (83%): Candida albicans, Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp, and Penicillium spp. were isolated most frequently. Altogether 237 yeasts and moulds were isolated, i.e. 3.0 different fungi/positive patient, with a maximum of 5 different fungi/sample. In the control group aerobic pathogens were not isolated, only apathogenic species. Fungi were isolated from 22 healthy patients (44%). These data indicate that fungi are frequently involved in the aetiology of CRS. IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to fungal allergens could not be proven in our patients.