The long-term mineral fertilisation experiment set up on acidic brown forest soil in Gödöllő in 1972 has made it possible over the years to answer a number of questions. It became clear that, in general, increasing rates of NPK fertilisation only caused a significant increase in the yields obtained in the crop rotation at lower rates (150–300 kg NPK/ha). As time went on, rates higher than this caused yield depression. The continuous application of high fertiliser rates led to a substantial increase in the P and K contents of the ploughed layer and in the quantity of nitrate accumulating in the 3 m soil profile. An increase in the quantity of nutrients was associated with a reduction in the pH and in the content of Ca and Mg. When mineral fertilisation was omitted for six years, there was a substantial reduction in the P and K contents of the ploughed layer.
The aim of the work was to analyse the compostable properties of bone powder produced via different treatment methods and industrial conditions, and to study their effect on plant growth and phosphorus uptake. The bones were treated in water with different temperatures, bone-water ratios and treatment times. Further treatment was carried out with citric, nitric and sulphuric acid with different concentrations, temperatures, bone-water ratios and treatment times. Industrial bone powder was composted under model industrial conditions.The available phosphorus content of these materials was estimated using ryegrass (
) as indicator plant in a climatic chamber.The water-soluble phosphorus content of the bones increased in the citric acid and sulphuric acid treatment, depending on the water treatment conditions and the acid concentration. This increase amounted to about 30 times (0.32–8.51 mg/100 mg) compared to the water treatment.The results of the plant test demonstrated that the phophorus content of treated bone powder and compost was readily available to plants. The phosphorus content of the compost was available over a longer period.
Human presence leaves an imprint not only on its environment but also on the soil cover. Soils are capable of preserving the signs of all the natural and human-induced activities that ever affected them. Via the identification and understanding of these signs it is possible to reconstruct ancient environments and obtain an insight into the lives of ancient societies. This has been successfully proven in numerous studies in Hungary (e.g. BARCZI et al., 2009; KRAUSZ, 2014; PETŐ, et al. 2015). This paper aims at furthering the understanding and reconstruction of the history of the Százhalombatta-Földvár tell site by analysing soil science data. Tell sites are very complex, so parallel to traditional archaeological investigation, a range of natural sciences (e.g. plant, animal and geological sciences) are involved in their analysis. In this study, soil science techniques, namely soil analysis and thin-section soil micromorphological analysis were employed to gain an insight into the past 4 000 years of the settlement’s history. The intensity and the variability of human activities are also investigated. The results revealed very intensive human influence and significant environmental changes in Százhalombatta-Földvár, demonstrating the importance of the area.
Humic substances have proved to be very important fractions in soils, playing a key role especially in agricultural soil and influencing chemical and physical soil properties. Spectroscopic methods are widely used to identify the quality of soil humic substances. In this study, 16 soil samples were selected from the Soil Bank of the Soil Science Laboratory at Szent István University, Gödöllő. The samples were extracted using the Hot Water Percolation (HWP) method and the amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in each fraction was measured. The kinetics of the DOC extraction process with the HWP method was estimated. The Ultraviolet Visible (UV-VIS) technique was used to characterize the properties of HWP-dissolved organic carbon (HWP-DOC), measuring absorbance at 200–700 nm. Among the humification parameters, the absorbance ratios at 254 and 365 nm (E2/E3) and 465 and 665 nm (E4/E6), the specific UV absorbance (SUVA) and the UV absorbance ratio index (URI) were estimated. The K factor (humus stability coefficient) and E2/E3 and E4/E6 in NaOH and NaF extracts were also measured. The properties of HWP-DOC were similar in most of the soil samples. There was a good correlation between the content of HWP-DOC and the absorbance at 254 nm. URI, SUVA, E2/E3 and E4/E6 indicated that most of the HWP-DOC in the samples consisted of fulvic acid components with greater activity, simpler structure and low molecular weight.
The required quality of compost depends on its final use. All the requirements must be focused on obtaining a product with an acceptable aspect and smell, which is hygienic and free from (or with only traces of) impurities and contaminants. The concept of compost quality especially relevant when the compost is used directly, as a substrate for seedling production or in pots; these applications need high-quality compost. The quality of compost based on concentrations of heavy metals and organic pollutants and on the absence of pathogens. The aim of the experiment was to prove the absence of the risk using this material in cereal production. The results of the last years suggest that there was no toxic element accumulation in the grain yield of triticale plants.Monitoring of phatogen reduction shows the conventional treatment by mesophilic digestion gives a limited reduction in the content of phatogens. The potential toxic effect of anaerobic digestate was measured in biotest with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and garden cress (Lepidium sativum) plants. The rapid biotests proved toxic reduction of plant growth and root development at high rate application of digestate in the first days of germination. The reason of the reduction of root could be explained with the high ammonium concentration of digestate.