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Our study involved assessing new Hungarian multi-resistant apple cultivars (‘Artemisz’, ‘Hesztia’, ‘Rosmerta’, and ‘Cordelia’) and two commercial cultivars (‘Watson Jonathan’ and ‘Prima’). The samples were evaluated by a trained assessor panel applying computer supported profile analysis with 20 descriptive sensory parameters (using ProfiSens sensory assessment software). Beside the profiles of each cultivar we also showed the significant differences between the cultivars (LSD95%, LSD99%). The nutritional values were analysed using the MANOVA statistical method, the effects of significant factors on measured values were evaluated by using Tukey (P=0.05) post-hoc test, and we determined the homogeneous and heterogeneous groups based on that. Our study showed that PCA bi-plots containing sensory and instrumental value loadings together with the scores of apple cultivars make the complex relationships of each cultivar available for comparison. The results clearly showed that the intensity of the sour taste is inversely proportional to the carbohydrate-acid ratio determined by measurements. The flesh firmness and pectin content values obtained by instrumental measurements were found to be strongly correlated sensory parameters on crispness, texture, and ripeness. PCA plots proved to be very useful in demonstrating the parallelisms between instrumental-instrumental (TPC/FRAP) and sensory-sensory (shade/colour) parameter pairs, too. Our aggregated results show that the new Hungarian resistant apple cultivars have almost as good as or even better nutritional values than ‘Prima’ and ‘Jonathan’ (the latter dominated the Hungarian apple production for several decades). The new multi-resistant cultivars renew the range of apple cultivars available on the market, and they introduce new flavours to consumers.

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A HPLC instrument was used to analyse various acid (citric, malic, succinic acid) and sugar (sucrose, glucose, fructose, sorbitol) components in the fruit of three cultivars grown in Hungary (Gönci magyar kajszi, Mandulakajszi and Harcot), while the β-carotene content was analysed spectrophotometrically. Changes in the chemical content of apricot varieties have not previously been monitored in the course of ripening. The quality of various food products is greatly influenced by the chemical components of the raw materials.The cultivar Gönci magyar kajszi had exceptionally high β-carotene (3.79 mg/100 g in 90% maturity) and sugar content (sucrose: 11253.9 mg/100 g, fructose: 315.2 mg/100 g and glucose: 1434.8 mg/100 g). Mandulakajszi was the most acidic (citric acid: 1597.2 mg/100 g). The malic acid content was similar for all three varieties during ripening. In case of Harcot, the β-carotene content was high in 2008 (3.58 mg/100 g in 90% maturity), however in 2010 it was lower due to environmental influences (2.38 mg/100 g). The pH value was similar for all examined varieties in all ripening stages (3.16–3.50), the TSS/TA value was highest in the 100% mature fruit (18.41) of Gönci magyar kajszi.

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Apricot is an important fruit species in Hungary both for fresh consumption and processing. Physical parameters and change of nutrients of nine apricot cultivars were studied during the ripening period. Four Hungarian and five North-American apricot cultivars were chosen for investigation. Changes in the physical parameters were measured by three different methods (Magness-Taylor hand penetrometer, Bookfield CT3 Texture Analyser with TA 44 and TA 9 measuring head). Significant differences in flesh firmness among the cultivars were observed mainly at the beginning of ripening time. Adhesiveness, cohesiveness and chewiness of the fruits decreased continuously during ripening. The studied cultivars showed significant differences in these traits. Sugar and acid contents were also measured during ripening. The cultivars showed small differences in sugar content and bigger differences in acid content of the fruits. Our data measured and collected during this study can be useful in characterizing the apricot cultivars studied. Changes in the texture parameters responsible for transportability and the technological usability of the fruits were described across the whole ripening period. Our results may help growers as well as food technologists to determine the optimum harvest date of cultivars intended to be used for different purposes.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
M. Stéger-Máté
,
G. Ficzek
,
E. Kállay
,
G. Bujdosó
,
J. Barta
, and
M. Tóth

The variation of some compositional quality parameters in connection with ripening time in the case of four sour cherry varieties ( Prunus cerasus L. Mill.) was studied. Our aim was to optimize the harvest time on the basis of antioxidant capacity. The experiments were carried out in the Érd-Elvira orchards of the Research Institute for Fruitgrowing and Ornamentals (cultivars Érdi bőtermő, Kántorjánosi 3) and in orchards of the Agárd Frucht Ltd. in Agárd (cultivars Érdi jubileum, Maliga emléke). Anthocyanin, polyphenol and vitamin C contents as well as the water-soluble dry matter content of fruits were measured.According to the results of quality parameter measurements it can be stated, that in case of the studied cultivars the optimal picking time for industrial processing is the second picking. At this time the anthocyanin, polyphenol and water-soluble dry matter content of the cultivars are optimal. In general, at the end of the ripening period the fruits shrink, fruit weight and juiciness decreases as a consequence of water loss, therefore determining optimal harvest time for the desired utilization purpose is very important. According to our results, out of the four studied cultivars, Érdi jubileum has the highest values regarding anthocyanin and polyphenol contents.

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