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Abstract  

The ternary system CsCl−NaCl−LaCl3 was investigated by means of differential thermal analysis and X-ray powder diffraction analysis. There exists one congruently melting compound, Cs2NaLaCl6, crystallizing with the cubic elpasolite structure. No quasi-binary section exists for the whole system, however three binaries range from the ternary compound Cs2NaLaCl6 to NaCl, CsLa2Cl7 and Cs3LaCl6 resp., dividing the system in three areas of composition: one triangle, Cs3LaCl6−Cs2NaLaCl6−CsLa2Cl7, containing additionally a compound Cs2LaCl5 below 510°C, and the two areas CsCl−NaCl−Cs2NaLaCl6−Cs3LaCl6 and Cs2NaLaCl6−NaCl−LaCl3−CsLa2Cl7, containing a mixed crystal range between LaCl3 and Na3La5Cl18. These areas could be further divided in five triangles, so that the whole system contains six Alkemade triangles.

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We have previously demonstrated that imidazole-4-acetic acid-ribotide (IAA-RP) is present in the mammalian brain and is an endogenous ligand at imidazoline binding sites. In the present study, we used a polyclonal antiserum to visualize IAA-RP-containing neurons in the rat caudoputamen. We observe IAA-RP-immunostained neurons scattered throughout the dorsal and ventral striatum. Most of these cells co-localize GABA, but none are parvalbumin-immunoreactive. In contrast, approximately 50% of the calbindin D28k-immunopositive striatal neurons co-localize IAA-RP. Electrophysiological studies using corticostriatal slices demonstrated that bath application of IAA-RP reversibly depresses the synaptically mediated component of field potentials recorded in the striatum by stimulation of cortical axons. Addition of competitive glutamate receptor antagonists completely blocks the response, confirming its association with glutamatergic transmission. Using paired-pulse stimuli, IAA-RP was shown to exert, at least in part, a presynaptic effect, but blockade of GABAA receptor-mediated transmission did not alter the response. Lastly, we show that this effect is attributable to imidazoline-1 receptors, and not to α2 adrenergic receptors. Since IAA-RP is an endogenous central regulator of blood pressure, and cardiovascular dysfunction is a common symptom associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD), we speculate that IAA-RP-related abnormalities may underlie some of the autonomic dysfunction that occurs in PD.

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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing (at 450 or 600 MPa for 300 s) on microbial quality as well as on organoleptic properties of fish salad with mayonnaise during 26 days of storage at 5 and 10 °C. The salad contained diced smoked trout fish, mayonnaise, and different kinds of spices. These freshly made salads usually have only a couple of days of shelf life. The HHP treatment basically did not affect the physical and organoleptic characteristics of the fish salad with mayonnaise. At both storage temperatures, the HHP treated samples showed enhanced safety and increased shelf-life up to 3 weeks.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: K.N. Hussein, L. Friedrich, R. Pinter, Cs. Németh, G. Kiskó, and I. Dalmadi

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bioactive compounds (BACs): linalool (LIN) and piperine (PIP) on chicken meat characteristics. The meat was treated with 500, 1000 ppm of BACs, vacuum packaged and stored at 4 °C for 8 days. Physicochemical characteristics, lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS), microbiological status, and sensorial (electronic-nose based) properties were investigated. Both BACs significantly increased the redness (a*) and chroma (C*) values in meat compared to increased lightness (L*) and higher TBARS in control. Although both BACs showed overlapping aroma profile, the E-nose was able to distinguish between the different meat groups. LIN with various dilution ratios, particularly 1:10 (v:v), showed in vitro growth inhibition against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Bacillus cereus, concomitantly Listeria monocytogenes required 1:80 (v:v) to be inhibited, and no inhibition was detected for Pseudomonas lundensis. In contrast, PIP at different dilutions did not exhibit inhibitory activity. Regarding aerobic mesophilic counts (AMC), less than 7 log CFU g−1 were recorded except for control showing higher log. Both BACs have potential to improve quality characteristics and increase the shelf life of meat and meat products.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: L. Darnay, A. Tóth, B. Salamon, K. Papik, G. Oros, G. Jónás, K. Horti, K. Koncz, and L. Friedrich

The aim of this study was to show how microbial transglutaminase (mTG) can be used as an effective texture-modifier for two popular Hungarian products: Trappist cheese and frankfurter. In both cases we investigated how components of these products, milkfat in cheese and phosphate in frankfurter, can be substituted by mTG. Therefore, Trappist cheese samples were produced from cow milk of 2.8%, 3.5%, and 5% milk fat. The effect of ripening was evaluated with Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) and sensory evaluation (scoring test, 10 trained panellists). Springiness and cohesiveness values were significantly higher by enzyme-treated semi-hard cheese samples at lower milk fat levels. Sensory evaluation showed that the enzyme-treatment led to higher scores by cheese samples made from cow milk of 3.5% and 5% milk fat. Frankfurter was made with 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, and 0.7% tetrasodium pyrophosphate, and partly enzyme-treated with 0.2% commercial mTG enzyme preparation. Our results showed that mTG is able to significantly improve hardness and crunchiness by frankfurters made with 0.1% phosphate addition. Our sensory evaluation suggests that mTG and phosphate should be applied in combination in order to have a final product with recognisably more homogeneous texture.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: B. Csehi, E. Szerdahelyi, K. Pásztor-Huszár, B. Salamon, A. Tóth, I. Zeke, G. Jónás, and L. Friedrich

In the experiments pork loin and beef sirloin were treated by pressures of 100 to 600 MPa by 100 MPa steps for 5 min. Colour changes of samples and the changes of proteins were investigated. The latter were examined with isoelectric focusing and SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We found that myoglobin behaved completely differently in case of the two different species. Myoglobin has mostly lost its native state at 300 MPa pressure in case of pork, but the beef myoglobin could remain native even up to 500 MPa. The treatment at 300 MPa or higher pressure values caused almost complete aggregation and denaturation in case of pork and beef proteins. The results of SDS-PAGE and the colour measurement confirmed this finding.

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