The purpose of this study was to determine whether intravaginal prostaglandin F2α(PGF2α) would be effective for the treatment of metritis or pyometra in the bitch. Seventeen bitches with metritis or pyometra were treated with PGF2α. Prostaglandin F2α(150 (g/kg body weight) was administered once or twice daily by infusing 0.3 ml per 10 kg body wt into the vaginal lumen. Bitches were also treated with amoxicillin (15 mg/kg body wt/48 h) and/or gentamicin (4 mg/kg body wt/day) administered as intramuscular (i.m.) injections. Fifteen bitches were treated successfully with intravaginally administered PGF2αfor 3 to 12 days and with intramuscularly administered antibiotics for 4 to 12 days. Success of treatment was judged by cessation of vaginal discharge, the absence of fluid in the uterus as determined by ultrasonography, and the overall health status of the animal. As two bitches with pyometra showed clinical deterioration in spite of medical treatment, ovariohysterectomy was performed after the first and the second treatment, respectively. No side effects (salivation, vomiting, diarrhoea, hyperpnoea, ataxia, urination, anxiety, pupillary dilatation followed by contraction) were observed after PGF2αtreatment. The disease did not recur during the subsequent oestrous cycles within 12 months after the initial treatment. The results demonstrate that intravaginal administration of PGF2αwas effective in 13 dogs (86.6%) with metritis or pyometra, and caused no side effects. Although the study was based on a relatively small number of cases, it is concluded that prostaglandin F2αcan be a useful means of treating bitches with metritis or pyometra. However, in severe cases of pyometra ovariohysterectomy is needed.
The extenders and freezing rates from three different freezing protocols were combined and compared to each other in order to study the post-thawing acrosome integrity and fertility of frozen dog sperm. A commercial bovine TRIS-base extender (TRILADYL) and two self-made canine semen extenders (Norwegian and Dutch) were combined with a conventional bovine and two canine freezing regimes, and acrosome integrity of frozen/thawed spermatozoa was assessed by fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated peanut agglutinin staining (FITC-PNA). Differences between freezing/thawing protocols were reflected in the proportion of cells with acrosomal damage and not based on motility results. It was concluded that during dog semen cryopreservation extenders had less influence on the post-thawing sperm quality than did the freezing rates. The optimal extender/freezing rate combination (TRILADYL/Norwegian) was used in the clinical practice to evaluate the fertility of frozen sperm administered by intrauterine insemination using a surgical approach. The pregnancy rate was 57% (4/7), but the average litter size was low (2.8). This may have been due to the insufficient sperm numbers contained in an insemination dose and/or to the incorrect timing of artificial insemination (AI). The final conclusion is that the commercial bovine extender is useful for freezing dog semen, and the TRILADYL/Norwegian freezing protocol is recommended as the most advantageous combination for the freezing of canine semen in the clinical practice.
The thermal decomposition behavior of hard coal fly ash (HCA2), obtained from the combustion of an Australian hard coal in
thermoelectric power plants, in different atmospheres (air, N2 and N2-H2 mixture), was studied using thermogravimetry (TG), infrared-evolved gas analysis (IR-EGA), differential scanning calorimetry
(DSC) and thermodilatometry (DIL) techniques. It was found that changing of the applied atmosphere affects the carbon content
of the ash which results in different thermal decomposition behaviors. In air, the carbon content was oxidized to carbon dioxide
before the decomposition of carbonate. In N2 or in N2-H2 atmospheres, the carbon content acts as a spacer causing a fewer points of contact between calcium carbonate particles, thus
increasing the interface area which results in a decrease of the carbonate decomposition temperature. Following the carbonate
decomposition, the iron oxide content of the ash undergoes a reductive decomposition reaction with the unburned carbon. This
oxidation-reduction reaction was found to be fast and go to completion in presence of the N2-H2 mixture than in the pure nitrogen atmosphere due to the reducing effect of the hydrogen.
The kinetics of the carbonate decomposition step, in air and N2-H2 mixture was performed under non-isothermal conditions using different integral methods of analysis. The dynamic TG curves
obeyed the Avrami-Erofeev equation (A2) in air, and phase boundary controlled reaction equation (R2) in N2-H2 mixture. The change in the reaction mechanism and the difference in the calculated values of activation parameters with the
change of the atmosphere were discussed in view of effect of the atmosphere on the carbon content of the ash.
Authors:Gábor Illés, G. Kovács, A. Bidló and B. Heil
methodology of forest site evaluation has some challenging weaknesses, which
may greatly influence the efficiency of both forest planning and forest
management practice. This fact keeps us searching for new methods to overcome
the difficulties. The present paper gives a short overview of our research on
GIS based digital soil mapping techniques and their possible application in
forestry, offering a powerful tool for forest site evaluation. The paper
focuses on four main issues. First, the main weakness in site evaluation,
second, methods of digital soil mapping, third, the description of the study
areas and mapping procedures, and finally, the possible outcomes and the major
directions of further development.
Authors:M. Gaber, G. B. El-Hefnawy, M. A. El-Borai and N. F. Mohamed
A series of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of azo-compounds containing hydroxyl quinoline moiety have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moments, IR, electronic and ESR spectral studies. The results revealed the formation of 1:1 and 1:2 (L:M) complexes. The molar conductance data reveal that the chelates are nonelectrolyte. IR spectra indicate that the azodyes behave as monobasic bidentate or dibasic tetradentate ligands through phenolate or carboxy oxygen, azo N for 1:1 (L:M) complexes beside phenolate oxygen and quinoline N atoms for 1:2 (L:M) complexes. The thermal analyses (TG and DTA) as well as the solid electrical conductivity measurements are also studied. The molecular parameters of the ligands and their metal complexes have been calculated.
Urbanization effects on terrestrial isopod (Isopoda, Oniscidea) populations were studied in forested areas along a rural-to-urban gradient including a native beech forest, suburban and urban forest fragments in Sorø, Denmark. The seasonal activity patterns of the dominating species (Oniscus asellus, Philoscia muscorum and Porcellio scaber) indicated differences among the areas, but these patterns were idiosyncratic. There were more females than males in most areas. The seasonal patterns of males and non-gravid females were similar and often bimodal; gravid females showed markedly different, usually unimodal activity patterns. Temporal changes of sex ratios were – in each species – characterized by an early summer activity peak of males, followed by the activity peak of gravid females. We suggest that these trends might indicate a reproduction-driven surface activity of males. The small response of the three isopod species to urbanization may reflect their wide ecological tolerance as well as the “soft management” of the urban park.
Energy saving in buildings is one of the most important research directions in the building sector. Energy saving solutions should not lead to decreased indoor environment quality. Because of the increased number of summer heat waves, cooling systems are widely used to assure thermal comfort in buildings. In this paper, ceiling cooling and wall cooling systems were tested and compared from the thermal comfort point of view using 24 subjects (12 women and 12 men). The cooling ceiling and wall surface and the supply/return temperatures were similar. Analysing the obtained subjective answers, no significant differences were obtained on average or by gender. However, significant differences were obtained between the subjective answers and the calculated PMV values. Furthermore, the occupant’s reaction was different after switching off the ventilation and cooling systems.
Authors:Z. Mravcsik, F. Gyulai, S. Vinogradov, A. Emődi, I. Rovner and G. Gyulai
Digital seed image analysis of seed remains of three ancient vinegrape samples excavated from 15th-century sites of Hungary was conducted and compared to those of ten currently grown old grapevine varieties. Digital seed images were analysed by Fovea Pro 4.0 computer program, with the final aim to identify the ancient grapevine cultivars with a final genotype reconstruction. Discriminant analysis, XY plot and histogram analyses revealed that seeds of two archaeological samples (11–13) show the closest similarity to the currently grown old vinegrape Vitis v. vinifera cv. ‘Mézesfehér’ (sample 6). Histogram analysis of seed parameter Equiv.Diam. (cm) of the archaeological seed sample ‘Budai vár’ (sample 11) showed diverse multimodal distribution compared to the unimodal distribution of cv. ‘Mézesfehér’ (sample 6), which results indicated that cv. ‘Mézesfehér’ went through a selection through the last five centuries, which narrowed the morphological diversity of this seed character.
The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the tendencies of development in the construction industry, one of the most important foundations of economic development, between 2000 and 2012. The key findings of the study may be summarized in the following:
– In the period between the 2000 and 2012, after the increasing tendency that could be observed in the first half of the first decade in the new millennium, a significant drop occurred both in terms of the value of production and the number of employees in the construction industry.
– From the three subsectors of the construction industry, it was the construction of buildings on which the economic crisis that started in 2008 had a negative impact.
– The territorial tendencies of the construction industry were influenced by large-scale infrastructural investments (motorway construction, railway network development).