Authors:M. Gulyás, A. Tomocsik, V. Orosz, M. Makádi, and G. Füleky
The required quality of compost depends on its final use. All the requirements must be focused on obtaining a product with an acceptable aspect and smell, which is hygienic and free from (or with only traces of) impurities and contaminants. The concept of compost quality especially relevant when the compost is used directly, as a substrate for seedling production or in pots; these applications need high-quality compost. The quality of compost based on concentrations of heavy metals and organic pollutants and on the absence of pathogens. The aim of the experiment was to prove the absence of the risk using this material in cereal production. The results of the last years suggest that there was no toxic element accumulation in the grain yield of triticale plants.Monitoring of phatogen reduction shows the conventional treatment by mesophilic digestion gives a limited reduction in the content of phatogens. The potential toxic effect of anaerobic digestate was measured in biotest with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and garden cress (Lepidium sativum) plants. The rapid biotests proved toxic reduction of plant growth and root development at high rate application of digestate in the first days of germination. The reason of the reduction of root could be explained with the high ammonium concentration of digestate.
Authors:G. Gulyás, M. Rakszegi, Z. Bognár, L. Láng, and Z. Bedő
The genetic diversity of cultivated spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) presently is narrow. Evaluation of germplasm collections of spelt on quality level supplemented with DNA analysis is, therefore, of great importance. This study was designed to help the evaluation process for the selection of new spelt varieties with a support of molecular characterization. A total of 30 genotypes, including two common wheat varieties, were included in the evaluation of genetic diversity on quality and DNA levels. According to the quality attributes, spelt flours exhibited medium rheological parameters and many of them had average gluten quality. AFLP analysis was conducted to evaluate phylogenetic relationships and the genetic diversity present in the accessions. A high level of genetic diversity was revealed by the very high PIC values. Two main clusters could be separated on the dendrogram: a cluster with genotypes that have common wheat in their pedigree and another cluster consisting of pure spelt accessions. The extent of genetic diversity in the spelt germplasm collections was confirmed not only by molecular markers but on the basis of quality assessment.
Authors:G. Gulyás, Z. Bognár, L. Láng, M. Rakszegi, and Z. Bedő
A total of 266 Martonvásár (Mv) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions, including varieties and advanced lines, were examined using the “Perfect” molecular markers to detect the Rht-B1b (formerly Rht1) and Rht-D1b (formerly Rht2) semi-dwarfing genes. The gene Rht-B1b was detected in a total of 221 (83.5%) accessions. The Rht-D1b allele was found in fewer accessions. Overall 24 genotypes (9%) contained this allele. The analysis of the development date of the genotypes revealed that the introduction of the dwarfing genes into Martonvásár breeding programmes started in the early 1970s, and they were widely utilized from the 1980s. The Rht-B1b allele was the main source for reducing plant height, while the Rht-D1b allele played only a minor role in the Martonvásár breeding programme.Characterizing accessions using various molecular markers allows us to create a database offering relevant marker information about genotypes. Such a database could be very helpful for selection, allowing breeders to include varieties giving positive results in specific breeding programmes.
Authors:G. Sramkó, G. Gulyás, G. Matus, Sz. Rudnóy, Z. Illyés, Z. Bratek, and A. Molnár V.
The taxonomy of the genus
, in which two European species, a smaller eastern
and a more robust western
are included, has been controversial since the description of the eastern species in 1821. Nuclear encoded ribosomal DNA ITS1 and the entire chloroplast DNA ITS were sequenced from several European populations, from France to the Ukraine, and the leaf width of mature living individuals was measured and analysed by ANOVA and Tukey-test. Although the studied DNA regions proved to be invariable, leaf width shows extreme variability. We found no correlation between the leaf size of the individuals and the geographical position of the populations, and in addition, the sequenced DNA regions showed total uniformity. Thus, our results do not support the division of the genus
into two taxa, at least in the sampled area. The formerly described size variants can be treated taxonomically at the
Authors:C. Kuti, L. Láng, G. Gulyás, I. Karsai, K. Mészáros, G. Vida, and Z. Bedő
In recent years an information system has been elaborated and constantly improved in Martonvásár, making it possible to handle the 3–4 million identification, observation, measurement, pedigree and other data generated for a total of almost 100,000 experimental plots each year. The extremely rapid development of biotechnology has made breeders interested in integrating molecular breeding methods into the conventional phenotype-pedigree system. The aim is to improve the competitiveness of breeding programmes through the intensive use of this new technology, with particular emphasis on determining how marker-assisted selection can be utilised. The present paper outlines not only a new data structure introduced to accommodate the new data elements of data categories such as gene sources, primer bank, primer combinations, markers, genes and alleles, but also data management tools and a standalone software interface to combine both molecular and phenotypic data. The integration of the molecular genomic data (GENETECH) with the information from the existing databases: pedigree (PEDIGREE), gene bank (GENEBANK) and germplasm exchange (GERMPEXCHG), ensures that biotechnological data generated at no little cost can be harnessed in ways that are important for breeders in decision-making. This is achieved through: (i) identification and centralization in uniform sources of the molecular data, and their matching with specific phenotypes, with special regard to those of importance for marker-assisted selection, (ii) integration and compliance with existing information system data, (iii) facilitation of decision-making based on the above (e.g. grouping of selection/crossing partners).
Authors:C. Kuti, L. Láng, G. Gulyás, I. Karsai, K. Mészáros, G. Vida, and Z. Bedő
The research institute in Martonvásár is one of the largest agricultural research institutes in Hungary and in Central Europe. For many years now, the accumulated data on the extensive wheat breeding stocks has been handled and analysed using programs developed in the institute. The information system that has been elaborated and constantly improved can be used for keeping records of breeding stock, for planning field and laboratory experiments, for site-plant performance evaluation, for automated data collection, for the rapid evaluation of the results and for effective management of the pedigree, seed exchange and the institute’s cereal gene bank.The demand for the storage of molecular data and their use in breeding has increased parallel with the development of new, PCR-based markers. For this reason, informatics tools (data structure and software) suited to the design of marker-assisted selection experiments and the interpretation of the results have been developed as part of the existing Martonvásár wheat breeding information system. The aim was to link molecular data to the phenotypic information already available in the database and to make the results available to wheat breeders and geneticists.The interpretation of molecular data related to specific genotypes is of assistance in clarifying the genetic background of economically important phenotypic traits, in identifying markers linked to the useful genes or agronomic traits to be found in the genomics database, and in the selection of satisfactory parental partners for breeding. Marker assisted selection coupled with traditional breeding activities enables the breeder to make plant selections based on the presence of target genes. Conventional wheat breeding with the integrated molecular component allows breeders to more accurately and efficiently select defined sets of genes in segregating generations.The molecular data are stored in a relational database, the central element of which is the [DNASource] entity. This is used to collect and store information on gene sources arising during breeding. It is therefore linked both to the phenotypic data stored in the traditional breeding system (measurements, observations, laboratory data) and to the component parts of the new, molecular data structure ([PrimerBank], [Marker], [Allele] and [Gene]).
Authors:G. Gulyás, L. Czeglédi, B. Béri, S. Harangi, E. Csősz, Z. Szabó, T. Janáky, and A. Jávor
The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in the proteome patterns of musculus longissimus dorsi between Charolais bulls slaughtered at 500 kg and 700 kg live weight using two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Three hundred fifty protein spots were visualised on gels of which 10 showed different expression levels (P<0.05) between groups. After mass spectrometric analysis of spots, beta-enolase (ENO3) in five different spots, alpha-enolase (ENO1), triosephosphate isomerase (TPI1) in two different spots, alpha-actin (ACTA1), and heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1) were identified. ENO3, ENO1, TPI1, and ACTA1 had higher expression levels in bulls of 700 kg live weight group. ENO3, ENO1, and TPI1 are involved in energy metabolism, while ACTA1 is a structure protein in skeletal muscle. Up-regulation of heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1), which protein is reported to have correlation with tenderness, was observed in 500 kg weight group. Our result demonstrates that proteomic tools are useful in identifying markers associated with muscle development.
Authors:A. Csikos, A. Hodzic, E. Pasic-Juhas, A. Javor, A. Hrković-Porobija, T. Goletic, G. Gulyas, and L. Czegledi
Species identification in food has become a prominent issue in recent years as the importance of consumer protection has increased. DNA-based species identification methods were developed by researchers in the last two decades, as these are reliable, accurate, and low-cost techniques for species identification in raw and processed food products as well. In our study, universal primers were designed to conserved regions of mitochondrial 12S rRNA. Amplicons were heat-denatured and a PCR single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) method was developed to identify cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goat DNA. Sensitivity of this technique was tested on DNA mixtures of cattle-sheep, cattle-goat, and cattle-buffalo and the threshold limit of cattle DNA was 5%, 5%, and 3%, respectively. One hundred and five cheeses were purchased and collected from Bosnian and Hungarian farmers, retails, and supermarkets to reveal fraud, 32 percent of them (34 cheeses) were found to be mislabelled by species.
Authors:G. Vida, M. Cséplő, G. Gulyás, I. Karsai, T. Kiss, J. Komáromi, E. László, K. Puskás, Z. Wang, C. Pace, Z. Bedő, L. Láng, and O. Veisz
Among the factors which determine yield reliability an important role is played by disease resistance. One of the breeding aims in the Martonvásár institute is to develop wheat varieties with resistance to major diseases. The winter wheat varieties bred in Martonvásár are examined in artificially inoculated nurseries and greenhouses for resistance to economically important pathogens. The effectiveness of designated genes for resistance to powdery mildew and leaf rust has been monitored over a period of several decades. None of the designated major resistance genes examined in greenhouse tests is able to provide complete resistance to powdery mildew; however, a number of leaf rust resistance genes provide full protection against pathogen attack (Lr9, Lr19, Lr24, Lr25, Lr28 and Lr35). In the course of marker-assisted selection, efficient resistance genes (Lr9, Lr24, Lr25 and Lr29) have been incorporated into Martonvásár wheat varieties. The presence of Lr1, Lr10, Lr26, Lr34 and Lr37 in the Martonvásár gene pool was identified using molecular markers. New sources carrying alien genetic material have been tested for powdery mildew and leaf rust resistance. Valuable Fusarium head blight resistance sources have been identified in populations of old Hungarian wheat varieties. Species causing leaf spots (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, Septoria tritici and Stagonospora nodorum) have gradually become more frequent over the last two decades. Tests on the resistance of the host plant were begun in Martonvásár four years ago and regular greenhouse tests on seedlings have also been initiated.