The concept of crystallization dynamics method evaluating the miscibility of binary blend system including crystalline component
was proposed. Three characteristic rates, nucleation, crystal growth rates (N*, G*) and growth rate of conformation (Gc*) were used to evaluate the miscibility of PVDF/at-PMMA and PVDF/iso-PMMA by the simultaneous DSC-FTIR. N*, G* and Gc* depended remarkably on both temperature and blend fraction (ϕPMMA) for PVDF/at-PMMA system, which indicated the miscible system. PVDF/iso-PMMA showed small ϕPMMA dependency of N*, G* and Gc*, was estimated the immiscible system. The ΔT/Tm0 values, corresponding to Gibbs energy required to attend the constant G* and Gc*, evaluated from G* and Gc* showed the good linear relationships with different slope. The experimental results suggested that the concentration fluctuation
existed in PVDF/iso-PMMA system.
A simple, rapid, and sensitive liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) and pyrithione (PT) in shampoos. The method consisted of a liquid–liquid extraction for sample preparation. The mass spectrometer was operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via the positive electrospray ionization interface. A linear regression (weighted 1/x) was used to fit calibration curves over the concentration range of 50–2000 ng/mL for both ZnPT and PT. Excellent linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9996) was achieved for all. The method was validated and found to be accurate (95.9–108.2% for ZnPT and 94.9–110.4% for PT), precise, and selective. Analytes in shampoos were found to be stable in the autosampler (6 °C for 6 h), in room temperature (for 6 h), and after three freeze–thaw cycles, and recovery of analytes was reproducible (90.8–94.6% for ZnPT and 90.2–96.3% for PT).
In order to evaluate the use of gamma-ray treatment as a pretreatment to conventional biological methods, the effects of gamma-irradiation
on biodegradability (BOD5/COD) of textile and pulp wastewaters were investigated. For all wastewaters studied in this work, the efficiency of treatment
based on TOC removal was insignificant even at an absorbed dose of 20 kGy. However, the change of biodegradability was noticeable
and largely dependent on the chemical property of wastewaters and the absorbed dose of gamma-rays. For textile wastewaters,
gamma-ray treatment increased the biodegradability of desizing effluent due to degradation of polymeric sizing agents such
as polyvinyl alcohol. Interestingly, the weight-loss showed the highest value of 0.97 at a relatively low dose of 1 kGy. This
may be caused by the degradation of less biodegradable ethylene glycol prior to terephthalic acid decomposition. For pulp
wastewater, the gamma-ray treatment did not improve the biodegradability of cooking and bleaching of C/D effluents. However,
the biodegradability of bleaching E1 and final effluents was abruptly increased up to 5 kGy then slowly decreased as the absorbed
dose was increased. The initial increase of biodegradability may be induced by the decomposition of refractory organic compounds
such as chlorophenols, which are known to be the main components of bleaching C/D and final effluents.