A questionnaire study was performed involving 76 farms with a total of 380,207 pigs to assess the welfare of pigs kept in Hungary based on the animal welfare legislation of the European Union. Most significant deficiencies were found in the fulfilment of the provisions relating to space requirements, the stall microclimate and the behavioural needs of the animals.
Two new species of eriophyoid mite, Aceria bendeguzin. sp., associated with Alcea rosea (Malvaceae) and Acaralox hungarorumn. sp. from Agrimonia eupatoria (Rosaceae), are described and illustrated from Hungary. Morphological differences distinguishing these species from other malvaceous and rosaceous inhabiting congeners are discussed.
Ferenc Jánossy was the most important Hungarian pioneer of surveys on long time series. In the 1960s he devised the famous theory of trendlines, which allowed him to forecast the great world economic recession of the 1970s a decade in advance. The best-known international authority on compiling historical time series is Angus Maddison, who prepared time series of the main demographic and macroeconomic indicators for 56 countries, from 1820 to the present day. Both scientists, whose survey method showed both a historical and a quantitative approach, reached the conclusion that human capital is the most important of production factors for securing long-term economic growth. The main purpose of this paper is to compare their results with the latest development, which is known as the “new growth theory”.
The purpose of this paper is to implement the regularities of product innovation in the field of marketing. The article takes a look at the different understandings of the concept of marketing innovation and it states that although the innovation concept is widely discussed in marketing literature, it lacks one important element: the “missing link” is an analysis of the relation between product innovation and marketing innovation. The paper discusses the different patterns of innovation and points out that the marketing of a product category displays a similar evolution cycle. Using the dominant product-form analogy, the author presents his hypothesis about the existence of a dominant marketing mix. He argues that as the dominant product form emerges, it is accompanied by a dominant marketing form, and he states that such standardised marketing will dominate the scene until the next discontinuous innovation.
The study involves structures applicable in building structures. Present part I includes structures applicable in building structures. Building structures for this are classified according to functions. Two main groups can be distinguished: frameworks and building structures ensuring serviceability. Further subgroups can be distinguished within both main groups.
Upon examining the structural frame it is clear that buildings can be well classified according to frameworks. The four-element-classification of vertical load-bearing structural elements, walls and pillars — wall frame, pillar frame, mixed frame and frames without walls and pillars — provide a rather simple classification. Considering the different construction technologies of walls and pillars, and frameworks differing from these provides a multi-element classification. Various subgroups can be distinguished based on the relationship between walls and pillars as well as ceilings within the individual groups.
Part II of the study deals with changes of support structures interpreted among building constructions. We primarily link structural changes to the application of new materials and new approaches. Two areas are dealt with in this present study. One is the development and change of vaults, the other is changes of framework of building in case of applying new materials that are only partly suitable for taking bending and tensile stress.
Authors:X. J. Li, X. G. Hu, T. Z. Hu, G. Li, Z. G. Ru, L. L. Zhang and Y. M. Lang
Thinopyrum ponticum is particularly a valuable source of genes for wheat improvement. A novel wheat-Th. ponticum addition line, 1–27, was identified using cytology, SSR, ESTSSR, EST-STS and PCR-based landmark unique gene (PLUG) markers in this study. Cytological studies showed that 1–27 contained 44 chromosomes and formed 22 bivalents at meiotic metaphase I. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis indicated that two chromosomes from Th. ponticum had been introduced into 1–27 and that these two chromosomes could form a bivalent in wheat background. Such results demonstrated that 1–27 was a disomic addition line with 42 wheat chromosomes and a pair of Th. ponticum chromosomes. One SSR marker (BARC235), one EST-STS marker (MAG3284) and 8 PLUG markers (TNAC1210, TNAC1787, TNAC1803, TNAC1805, TNAC1806, TNAC1821, TNAC1867 and TNAC1957), which were all from wheat chromosome group 7, produced the specific band in Th. ponticum and 1–27, indicating that the introduced Th. ponticum chromosomes belonging to the group 7 of wheat. Sequence analysis on specific bands from Th. ponticum and 1–27 amplified using the PLUG marker TNAC1867 further confirmed this result. The 1–27 addition line was also observed to be high resistant to powdery mildew though it is not clear if the resistance of 1–27 inherited from Th. ponticum. This study provided some useful information for effective exploitation of the source of genetic variability in wheat breeding.