Crystallization, melting and structure of three different commercial types of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) grafted by maleic
anhydride (PP-g-MAH) with different maleic anhydride content (AC) and their β-nucleated versions were studied by X-ray diffractometry
(WAXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarised light microscopy (PLM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
The presence of maleic anhydride units disturbs the chain regularity, hereby decreases the crystallization tendency of iPP
in general and the β-crystallisation ability in particular. β-modification of iPP (β-iPP) forms only in β-nucleated PP-g-MAH
polymers studied if the anhydride content is not larger than 0.5 mass%. The influence of AC of PP-g-MAH on the feature the
spherulitic structure is demonstrated by PLM and SEM micrographs. The β-nucleated iPP/PP-g-MAH blends containing 10 mass%
PP-g-MAH crystallise predominantly in β-form independently of AC of the latter. The β-nuceated blends of iPP and PP-g-MAH
with lowest AC crystallise in β-form in whole concentration range. The interaction parameter between iPP and PP-g-MAH polymers
calculated by Nishi-Wang equation indicate limited interaction between the components.
A method has been developed for determining silicon in aluminium by fast neutron activation. It is based on the separation
of two gamma lines by a Ge(Li) detector: the 1.73 MeV line from the product of27Al(n, α)24Na and the 1.78 MeV line from the28Si(n, p)28Al reaction. In the case of aluminium-silicon alloys 100 μg silicon can be determined, with an error of 10% in an aluminium
sample of 1 g.
Ca salts of suberic (Ca-Sub) and pimelic acid (Ca-Pim) were synthesized and used as β-nucleating agents in different grades
of isotactic polypropylene (IPP). Propylene homo-, random- and block-copolymers containing these additives crystallize principally
in pure β-modification as demonstrated in isothermal and non-isothermal crystallization experiments. Ca-Sub proved the most
effective β-nucleating agent known, so far. It broadens the upper crystallization temperature range of pure β-IPP formation
up to 140C. The effect of the additives on the crystallization and melting characteristics of the polymers was studied. The
degree of crystallinity of the β-modification was found to be markedly higher than that of α-IPP. High temperature melting
peak broadening was first observed and discussed in literary results regarding the same phenomenon for α-IPP.
The nucleating efficiency and selectivity of different
β-nucleating agents was characterised and compared by differential scanning
calorimetry, (DSC) and temperature-modulated DSC (TMDSC). The nucleating agents
were the calcium salts of pimelic and suberic acid (Ca-pim and Ca-sub), linear trans-γ-quinacridone (LTQ), a commercial nucleator
NJ Star (NJS) and an experimental product (CGX-220). The efficiency and the
selectivity of Ca-sub and Ca-pim are extremely high. NJS is efficient above
a critical concentration, which is connected with its partial dissolution
in polypropylene melt. LTQ and CGX-220 possess strong overall nucleating ability
and moderate selectivity. Using TMDSC, we found that three consecutive processes
take place during the heating of β-nucleated samples cooled down to room
temperature: reversible partial melting of the β-form, irreversible βα-recrystallisation,
and the melting of the α-modification formed during βα-recrystallisation
or being present in samples prepared with non-selective β-nucleators.
Melting of the α-phase contains both reversible and irreversible components.
Authors:J. Varga, Krisztina Rigó, Csilla Lamper, J. Téren and G. Szabó
Kinetics of ochratoxin A production was examined in a number of ochratoxin producing isolates representing different sections of the Aspergillus genus. Both weak and high ochratoxin producers were tested using immunochemical or high-performance liquid chromatograhic methods. All isolates were found to produce the highest amounts of ochratoxin A after 7-10 days of incubation. Ochratoxin production varied between 30 - 5×105 ng ml-1 among the Aspergillus isolates tested. The A. albertensis and A. melleus isolates examined were found to produce ochratoxin A constitutively. A. albertensis produced the highest amounts of ochratoxin A at 30 °C after 7 days' incubation in YES liquid medium. Ergosterol content and ochratoxin production of A. albertensis cultures were in good correlation.
Authors:J. Komáromi, S. Bencze, B. Varga, G. Vida and O. Veisz
Over the last two centuries the atmospheric CO2 level has exhibited a consistent rise, leading to an increase in the greenhouse effect. This level is now 35% higher than it was before the industrial revolution. On the basis of various scenarios from the Special Report on Emissions it is expected to rise from the present level of 385 ppm to 650–970 ppm by the end of the 21st century.Plant biomass and resistance of winter wheat to various powdery mildew pathotypes were investigated at normal (400 ppm) and enhanced (700 ppm) atmospheric CO2 levels in a greenhouse. Wheat cultivars Ukrainka and Mv Hombár, and 12 lines from the mapping population developed from their cross and exhibiting different level of resistance were tested.The results showed that the atmospheric CO2 level had little influence on the resistance of winter wheat to powdery mildew infections based on the percentage of leaf area covered whole plant percentage severity. In response to higher atmospheric CO2 level there was an increase in the aboveground biomass of the winter wheat genotypes tested in the present work, leading to an increase in plant height and in stem and leaf weight. However, the number of tillers and the grain yield did not increase compared with the values recorded at normal atmospheric CO2 level.
Authors:J. Bacsó, M. Kis-Varga, P. Kovács and G. Kalinka
The Pb and Br content of plants growing along roads has been determined. It has been stated that the Pb-content of rye grass is proportional to the level of public road traffic. The Pb-content of plants cannot be removed by washing. The Pb, Cu and Zn-concentration of plants grown in the vicinity of smeltery may reach the 10–1000 times value of the normal level.