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Authors: J. Horváth and G. Kazinczi

Albrechtsen, S. E.: Testing Methods for Seed-Transmitted Viruses: Principles and Protocols. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, 2006. 268 pp. (US 100.00)

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Authors: J. Horváth, G. Kazinczi and G. Petrányi

G. Loebenstein, P. H. Berger, A. A. Brunt and R. H. Lawson (eds): Virus and Virus-like Diseases of Potatoes and Production of Seed-Potatoes. Kluwer Academic Publ., Dordrecht (The Netherlands), 2001, 460 pp. László Nowinszky (ed.): The Handbook of Light Trapping. Savaria University Press, Szombathely, 2003.

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The aim of our study was to examine the effect of tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV) infection on the growth and nutrient content of S. nigrum leaves. TMV infection significantly reduced the height, the fresh and dry weight of both the shoots and roots. The height of the shoots was reduced by 53% as compared to control. Reduction in fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots due to virus infection varied between 78 and 82%. There was no significant difference in the nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) content of the healthy and virus infected leaves of S. nigrum. The sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) content of the leaves significantly reduced due to virus infection. Opposite effect was observed in case of potassium (K) content, which were considerably enhanced in the TMV infected leaves.

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The aim of our study was to investigate the susceptibility of some Chenopodium species (Chenopodium album, C. glaucum, C. berlandieri, C. ugandae) to six viruses (Alfalfa mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Obuda pepper virus, Potato virus Y, Sowbane mosaic virus, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus). Fourteen plants of each species were mechanically inoculated and virus susceptibility was evaluated on the basis of symptoms and back inoculation. A series of new host-virus relations were determined.

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In this review results are summarized regarding the effect of virus infection on the physiological processes of weeds. Through several host-virus model relations the biomass and seed production, seed viability and germination, nutrient uptake, drought-resistance and photosynthetic pigment content of healthy and virus infected plants were compared. Because of their broad host range and high genetic variability viruses cannot be used for biological weed control. It was concluded that viruses unfavourably can influence physiological processes of weeds. Therefore, they may contribute indirectly to the reduction of competitive ability and population of weeds.

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In the second part of our study we have examined the effect of Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV) infection on the germination, seed trans­mission, seed viability and seed production of S. nigrum. Transmission of TMV by seeds of S. nigrum was 0.3%. Average seed production of the virus infected plants was reduced by 52%, as compared to the healthy control, and TMV infection also delayed generative development. Virus infection did not influence the germination of the seeds. Viability of seeds derived from ripened (blue-black) berries, was significantly reduced by TMV infection.

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Authors: J. Horvát, G. Kazinczi, A. Takács, M. Torma and A. Kovács
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Susceptibility of 33 Lycopersicon species and intra-specific taxa to 6 viruses such as U/246 strain of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV), Potato virus X (PVX), NTN strain of Potato virus Y (PVYNTN), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) were studied. Inoculated plants were tested for susceptibility on the basis of symptoms, serological reactions (DAS-ELISA) and back inoculation. All tested plants were susceptible to PepMV, PVX, TMV and ToMV. However, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. convar. parvibaccatum Lehm. var. cerasiforme (Dun.) Alef.s.l., L. peruvianum (L.) Mill. and L. hirsutum Humb. et Bonpl. were extreme resistant (immune) to PVYNTN. L. esculentum Mill. convar. infiniens Lehm. var. flammatum Lehm., L. esculentum Mill. convar. fruticosum Lehm. var. speciosum Lehm. and L. esculentum Mill. convar. infiniens Lehm. var. validum Bail. showed extreme resistance to CMV-U/246. The other 30 species and intra-specific taxa were susceptible to CMV-U/246. New compatible and incompatible host-virus relations have been reported. The extreme resistant Lycopersicon intra-specific taxa could be used as resistance sources in tomato breeding.

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