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Abstract  

This work reported on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate activated by addition of NiO nanocrystals with different surface areas. NiO samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transition electron microscope (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) technique, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy. With increasing annealing temperature, the surface areas of NiO samples reduced from 108.6 to 0.9 m2 g−1. The catalytic activities of NiO nanocrystals on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TG) coupled with differential thermal analysis (DTA). With addition of NiO nanocrystals, thermal decomposition temperature of AP decreased greatly. Larger surface areas of NiO nanocrystals promoted the thermal decomposition of AP.

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CuO nanocrystals in thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate

Stabilization, structural characterization and catalytic activities

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: L.-J. Chen, G.-S. Li, and L.-P. Li

Abstract  

CuO nanocrystals of different surface areas were prepared. All samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transition electron microscope, thermogravimetry, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller technique, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. CuO nanocrystals showed a stable monoclinic structure. With increasing surface areas, the surface hydration became significant, which is followed by shifts in infrared frequencies and Raman phonon modes. CuO nanocrystals were explored as an additive to catalytic decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP). AP decomposition underwent a two-stage process. Addition of CuO nanocrystals led to a downshift of high-temperature stage towards lower temperatures.

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Abstract  

Nano-ZnO flakes were synthesized by calcination of the precursor of Zn(OH)2 obtained via the reactive ion exchange method between an ion exchange resin and ZnSO4 solution at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope, UV-Vis diffuse reflection spectrum and Na2EDTA titration were used to characterize the structure features and chemical compositions of the as-prepared ZnO. The results show that the as-prepared ZnO flakes have uniform structure and high purity. Heat capacities in the temperature range of 83 to 396 K were measured. The measured heat capacities values were compared with those of coarse crystal powders and the difference between this two heat capacity curves was analyzed.

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Summary  

Single aerosol particles were analyzed in the ambient air of the center of Shanghai by scanning proton microprobe to obtain characteristic X-ray spectra (micro-PIXE) which were considered to be the fingerprints of these aerosol particles. The origin of the lead-containing particles was identified by the combination of the micro-PIXE spectra with pattern recognition technique. It was found that the most of the lead-containing particles were derived from vehicle exhaust, coal combustion and soil dust.

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To identify feedback signal(s) controlling nitrate uptake by wheat roots, the effects of 13 amino acids on time course of net nitrate influx have been investigated. A new non-invasive technique of measuring net nitrate influx with a high time resolution of minutes has enabled us to make this comparison. The results showed that glutamate caused a rapid and large decrease of net nitrate influx by roots. Aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamine caused a relatively slow decrease of net nitrate influx with a lag of 0.5–1.5 h. Other amino acids had a small effect or even no effect. It is speculated that glutamate is most likely to be a negative feedback signal.

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Maize seeds from inbred line Mo17, susceptible to Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), were investigated for SCMV seed transmission. The seed quality significantly influenced the seed transmission rate. There were more infected seedlings derived from larger seeds than smaller seeds in both golden (G) and buff (B) seed groups, the proportion of infected seedlings in G1 was similar to G2 and B1, and significantly higher than the others (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). While the proportion of SCMV seed transmission was higher in golden (3.9%) than buff seeds groups (2.3%), and there were significantly difference (P < 0.05) between the both colors seeds. However the percentage of infected seedlings was closely related to the location of seeds on ears, most infected seedlings were derived from seeds of the middle (Part III) and mid-base regions (Part IV), and the both parts (Parts III and IV) were significantly higher than that of Part I (P < 0.05). Fisher’s exact test indicated that the seed quality was associated significantly with the efficiency of SCMV seed transmission.

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Abstract  

The activation energy associated with the glass transition relaxation of an epoxy system has been determined by using the three-point bending clamp provided in the recently introduced TA Instruments DMA 2980 dynamic mechanical analyzer. A mathematical expression showing the dependency of modulus measurements on the sample properties and test conditions has also been derived. The experimental results showed that the evaluation of activation energy is affected by the heating rate and test frequency, as well as the criterion by which the glass transition temperature (T g) is established. It has been found that the activation energy based on the loss tangent (tanδ) peak is more reliable than on the loss modulus (E 2) peak, as long as the dynamic test conditions do not cause excessive thermal lags.

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Effects of hydrocolloids (arabic gum, guar gum, and xanthan gum) on the physicochemical and rheological properties of whole-barley fortified cracker flour were determined using solvent retention capacity, alveograph, and Mixolab profiles. Results showed that the water absorption of whole-barley fortified cracker flour was reduced by the additional arabic gum. Besides, arabic gum was more effective in reducing the resistance to inflation and improving the extensibility of whole-barley fortified dough. Mixolab parameters indicated that the weakening of gluten proteins and the rate of starch retrogradation in whole-barley fortified cracker dough were reduced by the presence of arabic gum. Guar gum and xanthan gum promoted the rate of protein breakdown, but slowed down the starch gelatinization and retrogradation rate during the Mixolab heating-cooling cycle. In conclusion, involved arabic gum rather than guar gum or xanthan gum is benefit to improve the baking quality of wholebarley fortified saltine crackers.

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Abstract  

This paper introduces a new type of extractant, sym-dibenzo-16-crown-5-oxyhydroxamic acid (HL). The extraction of UO 2 2+ , Na+, K+, Sr2+, Ba2+ and Br were studied with HL in chloroform. The results obtained show that UO 2 2+ can be quantitatively extracted at pH above 5, whereas the extractions of K+, Na+, Ba2+ and Br are negligible in the pH range of 2–7. The dependence of the distribution ratio of U(VI) on both the concentration of the HL and pH are linear, and they have the same slope of 2. This suggests that U(VI) appears to form a 12 complex with ligand.Uranium (VI) can be selectively separated and concentrated from interfering elements such Na, K, Sr and Br by solvent extraction with HL under specific conditions. The recovery of uranium is nearly 100% and the radionuclear purity of uranium is greater than 99.99%. Therefore, it has greatly improved the sensitivity and accuracy for the detection of trace uranium from seawater by neutron activation analysis.

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