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Abstract  

Use was made of thermal and other techniques to characterise three native asphalt samples. The purpose was to support archaeological investigations reconstructing their thermal history and composition. The first sample (from a Roman quarry in central Italy) proved to have 37% impurities, no sign of oxidation or degradation and to have never been heated to above 100°C. The second sample (from a Roman ship sunk south of France) was pure, but partially oxidised, with a saturated fraction in its structure. Analyses of the latter sample, obtained from the eye of a Thracian bronze head, revealed that the asphalt had been heated to over 100°C and then mixed with natural wax.

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Abstract  

Extensive soil-gas surveys in sedimentary basins in Italy were performed to study the potential of some naturally occurring gases as indicators for concealed fracture zones, hydrocarbon and geothermal fluids. One conclusive result is a positive correlation between anomalously high values of radon and carbon dioxide in the soil-air over faults. The correlation coefficient for 1173 gas samples is 0.41. Statistically derived contourlines of Rn and CO2 anomalies show similar locations, shapes and directions. Fairly good Rn–CO2 coupling evidence appears even on a point-to-point analysis. Furthermore, it was recognized that the highest Rn values are in contrast to the low Ra content of the underlying clayey rocks and that conventional Rn transportation mechanisms seem to be inadequate for the clay sequences. All these facts strongly suggest that Rn is transported from the subsoil, through fault-linked pathways, by carrier gases of which CO2 could be one of the major components. The theory of geogas microbubbles is a possible explanation of the observed results. The carrier effect of ascending microbubbles can explain both the origin of soil-gas Rn anomaly and the Rn–CO2 coupling phenomenon.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
Alessandra Bianco
,
Ilaria Cacciotti
,
Mariangela Lombardi
,
Laura Montanaro
, and
G. Gusmano

Abstract  

Hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopowders were synthesised following two different precipitation routes: (a) from calcium nitrate and diammonium hydrogen phosphate solutions and (b) from calcium hydroxide suspension and phosphoric acid solution. The influence of precipitation process, concentration, and synthesis temperature on HA particle size and morphology, phase composition, thermal stability, and sintering behaviour was investigated by means of: thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), induced coupled plasma–atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy (TEM, SEM) and dilatometry.

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