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Silver-magnesium alloys containing 0.04, 0.35 and 2.3 at % Mg have been investigated at 803 K. Calorimetric measurements permit explanation of the hardness and electrical resistivity caused by the dispersion of oxide particles during the process of internal oxidation. It appears that in low-concentration alloys there is no thermal effect and that the stability of dispersed oxide particles is probably due to a significant entropy Results are qualitatively the same as for Ag-Cu alloys.

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The results of isothermal calorimetric determination of the stored energy for 99.999% pure polycrystalline rolled silver are reported. The stored energy values were found to be linearly related to the recrystallization temperature. An explanation of this effect is given in terms of the specific heat difference between the rolled and annealed states.

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Abstract  

Lifetime measurement in Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) is applied to the study of free-volume collagen characteristics as a function of concentration. The lifetimes of positrons were measured by a conventional fast-fast coincidence system. All lifetime data are fitted in three components by using the computer program POSITRON-FIT and resolved. For each concentration, lifetime distributions were analyzed in order to obtain the different components, thus we have observed three components of which one long component τ3. This long lived component can be associated with a pick-off annihilation of ortho-positronium (o-Ps) trapped in free volumes of amorphous region. This investigation shows the potential of positron annihilation spectroscopy in the study of biopolymer microstructures.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
J.L. Zárate-Castrejón
,
C.L. Aguirre-Mancilla
,
E. Solís-Moya
,
J.E. Ruiz-Nieto
,
J.C. Raya-Pérez
,
J.G. Ramírez-Pimentel
, and
V. Montero-Tavera

Yellow rust is a wheat disease caused by Puccinia striiformis, this pathogen causes economic losses in susceptible materials, which represent up to 70% of wheat varieties. Currently, the incorporation of genetic resistance through molecular tools, is a process used in the generation of new varieties resistant to this pathogen. A strategy employed to identify genes involved in the resistance to yellow rust is to screen differential EST obtained by suppressive subtractive hybridization. In this research, cDNA was extracted from healthy and inoculated plants from the resistant line V-26 from INIFAP. A set of 200 differentially expressed EST were cloned and sequenced, and 31 of them were selected for expression profile analysis by RT-PCR; additionally, with the aim of validate RT-PCR results, five genes were selected for RT-qPCR analysis in genotypes inoculated by P. striiformis. The results showed high levels of expression of selected genes in genotypes classified as resistant in the field conditions (21, 143, 230, 242, 261 and 277), while in the susceptible genotype 16, few genes were induced by the rust. Expression profiles confirmed significant differences between resistant and susceptible lines.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
M. Chaalal
,
S. Ydjedd
,
L. Chemache
,
R. López-Nicolás
,
T. Sánchez-Moya
,
C. Frontela-Saseta
,
G. Ros-Berruezo
, and
D.E. Kati

Abstract

Carob pulp is a natural source of polyphenols, which have been shown to possess health benefits. These compounds play a crucial role in initiating, shaping, and modulating the gut microbiota. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of carob pulp phenolic extracts on nine specific groups of human gut microbiota before and after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The effects of pure gallic and coumaric acids were also tested. The results showed that the treated phenolic compounds exhibited inhibitory effects on the growth of most pathogenic bacteria. Gallic acid, in particular, demonstrated the most potent antimicrobial effect on Listeria monocytogenes, reducing its growth to below 5%. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli showed a growth reduction of up to 10%. Furthermore, both phenolic acids, before and after digestion, led to a slight reduction in E. coli O157:H7 numbers. Probiotic bacteria experienced minimal decrease following exposure to phenolic extracts. However, the growth of Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus was significantly inhibited by almost 50%. Interestingly, the in vitro digestion process exhibited a stronger antibacterial effect against pathogenic bacteria compared to probiotic bacteria. These results highlight the potential of carob phenolic extracts in modulating the intestinal microbiota, thereby offering interesting prospects for the development of diet-based health strategies.

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