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It is inferred from the thermoanalytical data obtained on 0.2–4.0M solutions of Fe(ClO4)2 which are frozen under non-equilibrium conditions that the phase containing the solute ions turns into a glassy state below −95°. On the warming of these solutions exothermic and endothermic processes are observed which can be related to the effects observed by the nuclear gamma resonance method.

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We examined effects of UV and visible light irradiation on mycelial growth and sclerotium formation of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The irradi­ation with UV had no effect on the production of sclerotia. However it had strong inhibitory action on the growth of mycelia. In cultures of the fungus irradiated with yellow and green light more but small sclerotia developed mainly in the perimeter of culture at the time of irradiation and between this circle and the wall of Petri dishes. In cultures irradiated with red and blue light, a few, but large sclerotia developed.

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Studies on transition-metal picoline complexes

I. Preparation and thermoanalytical investigations

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
G. Liptay
,
A. Borbély-Kuszmann
, and
G. Nagy
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Abstract  

Simultaneous calorimetric and potentiometric/thermometric measurements were performed on three uncatalyzed bromate oscillators (UBOs) showing distinct temporal structures. The following UBOs were chosen: a) the gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxy benzoic acid)—bromate; b) the 1-hydroxy-4-[(1-hydroxy-2-methylamino)ethyl] benzene (HME)—bromate; and c) the 1,4-cyclohexanedione (CHD)—bromate system. Their oscillating reactions were monitored by an isoperibolic batch calorimeter of the Calvet-type at 20°C and with a quasi-adiabatic Dewar setup at room temperature, and in addition by platinum/calomel potentiometry and thermometry. Shape of the calorimetric curves, number and duration of the oscillations and their frequencies varied considerably between these three UBOs. The underlying chemical reaction schemes are discussed in connection with the energetic background.

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Abstract  

The present state of a long term program is reviewed. It was started to elaborate a remote controlled automated radiochemical processing system for the neutron activation analysis of biological materials. The system is based on wet ashing of the sample, followed by reactive desorption of some volatile components. The distillation residue is passed through a series of columns filled with selective ion screening materials to remove the matrix activity. The solution is thus “stripped” from the interfering radioions, and it is processed to single-elements through group separations using ion-exchange chromatographic techniques. Some special problems concerning this system are treated. (a) General aspects of the construction of a (semi)automated radiochemical processing system are discussed; (b) Comparison is made between various technical realizations of the same basic concept; (c) Some problems concerning the “reconstruction” of an already published processing system are outlined.

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Abstract  

Based on the method of SAMSAHL a programmed, semi-automated processing system has been developed and tested for the neutron activation analysis of the following elements: As, Se, Sb, Br, Sn and Te. The main characteristics of the procedure are the following: wet ashing of the sample (by means of digestion in a mixture of concentrated sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide), bromination, and chlorination. The procedure is controlled via the appropriate dosage of the reagents and a carefully managed thermal balance. The chemical yield and its reproducibility were determined by tracer techniques using exactly the same parameters as for the active runs. According to the results the method can be used for the routine determination of the given elements except antimony.

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Although angiogenesis is considered to be indispensable for continuous tumour growth, only very few studies have been published performing microvessel quantification during tumour progression. We mea- sured the tumour vascularity in different stages of rat pancreatic carcinogenesis induced by azaserine and promoted by raw soya flour-containing pancreatotrophic diet. Besides the tumour samples taken at 6 (atypical acinar cell nodules), 15 (adenomas) and 20 (localised adenocarcinomas) months after carcino- gen initiation, we also investigated 3 control groups: tumour-bearing host tissue of azaserine-treated rats and normal tissue of untreated rats kept on standard or pancreatotrophic diet. In contrast with the usual microvessel counting on hot spots, we determined microvascular surface density (SV) and volume den- sity (VV) by electron microscopic morphometry. There was no significant difference in these respect between the control groups. At month 6 after the azaserine induction SV and VV showed slight, non- significant decrease as compared to the host control. Both values remained unchanged until the 15th month and increased significantly by the 20th month. These results may indicate comparable growth rate of tumour and new microvessels in the premalignant stages of carcinogenesis while a more intense angio- genesis than tumour growth afterwards.

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In order to target factors involved in plant-pathogen interactions, gene expression differences were investigated on pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) plants after artificial infection with the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria . Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism investigations on reverse transcribed DNA fragments (cDNA-AFLP) were used to compare the expression profiles of parental lines and of resistant and susceptible individuals from pepper populations segregating for the gds gene, which confers a general defence system in pepper. In total, 73 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) displaying differential expression patterns could be identified (presence-absence and/or different time courses in resistant and susceptible genotypes). Of these, 67 fragments were cloned and sequenced. In the case of several TDFs, sequence comparisons revealed close homologies to genes known to be responsible for abiotic stress or biotic elicitors, presenting potentially interesting targets for more detailed studies on gene expression and signal transduction.

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Extracellular microelectrode recordings were carried out on 150 neurons in the anterior ectosylvian sulcal region of halothane-anesthetized, immobilized, artificially ventilated cats. Fifty-nine neurons were visual, 60 were auditory and 31 were bimodal visual-auditory. As the extent of the receptive fields has never been exactly determined, we introduced a quasi-objective, computer-based, statistical method in order to estimate the receptive field sizes in the anterior half of the perimeter. The visual, auditory and bimodal cells had very large receptive fields, often with portions extending well into the ipsilateral hemifield. The mean extents of the visual and auditory receptive fields in the horizontal plane were 75.75 (N=59, SD: ±28.62, range: 15-135), and 132.5 (N=60, SD: ±46.72, range: 15-165) respectively. These data suggest that a single visual neuron can carry information from the whole visual field of the right eye and a single auditory unit can carry information of azimuths throughout the whole area of the horizontal plane studied. The mean extent of the bimodal receptive fields in the horizontal plane was 82.1 (N=31, SD: ±24.24, range: 30-135). In 21 of the 31 bimodal cells we observed a facilitatory interaction between visual and auditory stimuli. The mean extent of the facilitatory interactions in these cells was 75.75 (N=21, SD: ±24.56, range: 45-135).

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