Let us consider a triangular array of random vectors (X (n) j; Y (n) j), n = 1;2;: : :, 1 5 j 5 kn, such that the first coordinates X (n) j take their values in a non-compact Lie group and the second coordinates Y (n) j in a compact group. Let the random vectors (X (n) j; Y (n) j) be independent for fixed n, but we do not assume any (independence type) condition about the relation between the components of these vectors. We show under fairly general conditions that if both random products Sn = kn Q j=1 X (n) j and Tn = kn Q j=1 Y (n) j have a limit distribution, then also the random vectors (Sn; Tn) converge in distribution as n !1 . Moreover, the non-compact and compact coordinates of a random vector with this limit distribution are independent.
Phenoloid contents were detected, examined and compared with each other from seven composite species (Inula ensifolia L., I. salicina L., I. spiraeifolia L., I. britannica L., I. conyza DC., Centaurea scabiosa L., C. micranthos S. G. Gmel.). The six test solutions were the followings: apigenin, quercetin, hyperosid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and rutin. There were significant differences between ray and disc florets from both quantitative and qualitative results, and the species with more significant insect visiting (Inula ensifolia, I. salicina, I. spiraeifolia) have got quantitative dominance.
The effect of growth phase of cells, cryoprotectant agents and freezing rate on the survival of selected micro-organisms (Bacillus cereus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces lactis, Candida utilis, Mucor racemosus, Aspergillus niger) during freezing and thawing was studied. In cases where significant differences were observed stationary phase cells always survived better than exponential phase ones, while of the two cryoprotectant agents studied, horse serum + inositol was always superior to skimmed milk powder + inositol. The effect of freezing rate was different among the studied micro-organisms.
In April 2011 the new 5th edition of “The Yeasts, a Taxonomic Study” was published (Kurtzman et al., 2011). This prompted to give an overview to orientate the interested readers about the substantial changes having carried out in the classification of yeasts since the previous 4th edition (Kurtzman & Fell, 1998). In terms of figures, the number of approved yeast species has increased from about 700 in 93 genera (4th ed.) to about 1500 in 148 genera (5th ed.), and within the overall figures, the ratio of basidiomycetous yeast genera increased from 39% to 42% (Table 1).
Words like aggression, violence, and violent actions usually carry destructive meanings. People tend to forget their constructive culturally determined meanings. In spite of this, it can be argued that aggressive feelings, hatred, anger, verbal aggression, threatening behaviour, assault, inflicting pain, injuring or ritual killing of men, or the fighting of war are all part of our lives as much as feasts and rituals that bind communities together, or the command to love of different religious ideologies. In the 16th century there was a definitive turn in judging the body in public. It meant that public attention gradually turned from the corpse of Christ to the bodies of the thieves. The two thieves were brought down from their crosses, laid out on the dissecting table, or their bodies were torn apart during fights. Evil-doers became part of scientific cognition. The antisocial public enemy became a hero of the community in the popular literature and historic stories. The conserved and stuffed bodies of robbers and killers were displayed in the first museums of the Early Modern Age, as a main attraction. Rebels were cut into pieces as part of a baroque play on the killing floor to display the parts in buildings of the town. The body of the everyday killer became a spectacle, and the interest in the mind of the solitary killer developed medical thinking on the human spirit.
Purpose:To investigate the potential in vivoinfluence of different topical glaucoma medications on the diameter of the retinal arterioles of healthy volunteers and glaucoma patients. Methods:The diameter of one pre-selected retinal arteriole per eye was measured using the Retinal Vessel Analyser (RVA), an instrument developed for non-invasive clinical measurement of the diameter of the main retinal vessels. The instrument contains a video system, and the integrated software recognises the boundaries of the retinal vessels by detecting their light-transmission profile. The vessel diameter (in arbitrary units) is plotted against time (seconds) on a separate display screen. In Study Ithe vessel diameter was measured in 12 eyes of six healthy volunteers (age 21–26 years, mean age 24.0 years) on six occasions each separated by 14 days. In a double-masked fashion, each subject's right eye was treated with one of 5 glaucoma medications (brinzolamide 1%, timolol 0.5%, betaxolol 0.5%, brimonidine 0.2% or latanoprost 0.005%) and the left eye always received balanced salt solution. In Study II, one randomly selected eye of 16patients (age 50–79 years, mean age 65.2 years) suffering from primary open-angle glaucoma controlled with topical monotherapy was investigated, in an unmasked fashion. Four patients were on betaxolol 0.5% treatment, sixsubjects were receiving non-selective topical beta receptor blockers and six subjects were being treated with once daily latanoprost 0.005%. Results: The coefficient of variation for the arteriole diameter in the healthy volunteers was less than 12% in each case. No significant post-treatment change of the diameter of the pre-selected arteriole was found for any topical medication investigated, either in the healthy volunteers (Study I)or in the patients suffering from glaucoma (Study II)(p?0.05, paired t-test). In addition, in Study Ino difference was observed in the alteration of the arteriole diameter between the baseline and the hour 2 measurements when the values from the drug-treated and placebo treated eyes were compared (p?0.05, two-way ANOVA). Conclusion:In the present investigations it was not possible to detect any statistically meaningful change of the arteriole diameter at two hours after the instillation of any of several topical antiglaucoma drugs widely used in clinical practice. Further investigations are necessary to clarify whether the lack of observed change is due to the lack of retinal vascular effects of the drugs investigated, or is due to an inability of the RVA instrument in practice to detect alterations between time-points separated by several hours.
Both demonology and medical learning wanted to define what material proofs they were to use in order to alleviate the politically rooted disease symptoms of the early modern period. Finding the proper therapeutic treatment required the appropriate description of the pathology, revealing the causes and consequences and making the right diagnosis. Several key questions were formulated concerning these requirements. Most of the questions formulated in this way are based on a formal syllogism that meets the normative requirements of disciplines that include law, theology and medicine and whose formal elements became valid within the systems of fulfilment of these disciplines themselves. In this paper I shall attempt to introduce the scholarly literature based on these formal logical criteria that address material proofs, omens, prophecies, oracles and miracles. I shall then outline how this debate in European secondary literature has been received in Hungarian scholarship.
Zygosaccharomyces species are among the most problematic food spoilage yeasts. The two most infamous species are Zygosaccharomyces balii and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, although they may also take a positive role during the production of some fermented foods. DNA sequence based yeast identification aided by freely available reference databases of barcoding DNA sequences has boosted the description rate of novel yeast species in the last two decades. The genus Zygosaccharomyces has been considerably expanded as well. Especially the number of the extremely osmotolerant Zygosaccharomyces species, related to Z. rouxii and regularly found in high-sugar foods, has enlarged. A brief account of recent developments in the taxonomy and biodiversity of this important food associated genus is given in this review.
This paper revisits the empirical trade literature on East-West trade in the early 1990s and provides a replication of the traditional gravity findings of that period with the Baier-Bergstrand version of the model, providing thereby better estimates of the trade hindering impact of the Cold War by including multilateral and world resistance factors and simultaneously considering country fixed effects. Breaking down the Cold War Walls increased world trade by 2.7% of world GDP. The replication with the Baier-Bergstrand model also reveals that Cold War trade distortions also significantly impacted China’s trade with the West.