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The objective of this pilot study was to compare the effects of two parallel balance trainings on postural sway and balance confidence. The study was performed in different contexts with stable vs. unstable base of support and balance confidence was measured with a scale modified for young adults with higher functional level.


Twenty healthy female physiotherapist students volunteered for the study and took part in a six-week balance training intervention. They were randomly assigned to two groups training on different support surfaces. Postural sway was recorded under various conditions: on different surfaces (firm, foam) and with different visual conditions (eyes open (EO), eyes closed (EC)). Modified Activities-specific Balance Confidence (mABC) scale was self-evaluated.


Both types of training caused a significant improvement in the mABC scores. The sway path increased after the training in the less challenging balance situations. We found a tendency of decreasing sway path only in the more challenging balance situations, that is standing on foam mounted on force plate with EC.


Considering the improved balance confidence in the case of both groups, we suggest that an increase in sway path after balance training may be the behavioural sign of the higher confidence in the less challenging balance situations.

Open access
Acta Botanica Hungarica
J. Csiky
L. Balogh
I. Dancza
F. Gyulai
G. Jakab
G. Király
É. Lehoczky
A. Mesterházy
P. Pósa
, and
T. Wirth

As part of the PADAPT project, the authors compiled the invasion biological database of the alien vascular flora of Hungary, which contains the nativeness, residence time, introduc- tion mode and invasion status of 878 alien or cryptogenic taxa. In the absence of adequate evidence, the classification of some species was only possible into uncertain, transitional cat- egories. The definitions of most categories are compatible with several international termi- nologies, but are primarily based on Central European traditions. Of the 560 taxa that have already been naturalised in Hungary, 85 are invasive, and 22 of them are transformer alien vascular plants. Only 5 of these transformers are included in the European list of Invasive Alien Species of Union concern (Ailanthus altissima, Asclepias syriaca, Elodea nuttallii, Heracleum mantegazzianum and H. sosnowskyi), which require uniform preventive interventions and treatments throughout the continent, while the rest of transformers in Hungary (e.g., Robinia pseudoacacia, Fallopia × bohemica and Solidago gigantea) draw attention to the unique, local and/ or regional invasion biological situation of the Pannonian Basin and Central Europe.

Open access