Authors:G. Sárközy, G. Semjén, P. Laczay and et al.
Experimental colibacillosis was produced in 40 healthy, 7-day-old broiler chickens and turkeys by intratracheal injection of 1 × 108 CFU/chick and 1.23 × 109 CFU/poult bacteria of an O1:F11 strain of Escherichia coli, respectively. Two days before E. coli challenge all chicks were vaccinated with a live attenuated strain of infectious bronchitis virus (H-52). This model of infection - at least in chicken - proved to be useful for evaluating the efficacy of antimicrobial medication, by recording mortality, body weight gain, pathological alterations and frequency of reisolation of E. coli. Using this model, the efficacy of two different dosing methods of norfloxacin (continuous and pulse dosing) was evaluated. The once-per-day pulse dosing of norfloxacin administered via the drinking water at 15 mg/kg body weight proved to be more efficacious than the continuous dosing method of 100 mg/L for 5 days in chickens, while there were no convincing differences between the two treatment regimens in turkeys. The results confirmed earlier observations on the pharmacokinetic properties of norfloxacin in chicks and turkeys (Laczay et al., 1998).
Authors:Katalin Kovács, N. Velich, T. Huszár, G. Szabó, G. Semjén, J. Reiczigel and Zsuzsanna Suba
Animal experiments were carried out with osteoconductive bone substitute β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), with the aim of assessing the effects of the growth factors synthesised by thrombocytes on the speed of β-TCP incorporation and on the quality of newly formed bone. The question to be answered was the extent to which platelet-rich plasma (PRP) accelerated the resorption of β-TCP and the formation of new bone. Two teeth were removed symmetrically from each side of the mandible of 12 Beagle dogs; the resulting cavities were filled on one side with β-TCP alone, and on the other side with a mixture of β-TCP + PRP (obtained from autologous blood). The quality of the newly formed bone and the effects of this PRP were studied by histological and histomorphometric methods. In week 6, bone formation was already more effective when PRP was applied in comparison with β-TCP alone, and in week 12 the growth was significantly greater. The results demonstrate that the use of PRP accelerates the remodelling of new bone created by β-TCP.
Authors:P. Laczay, G. Semjén, J. Lehel and G. Nagy
The pharmacokinetics and the influence of food on the kinetic profile and bioavailability of doxycycline was studied after a single intravenous (i.v.) and oral dose of 10.0 mg/kg body weight in 7-week-old broiler chickens. Following i.v. administration the drug was rapidly distributed in the body with a distribution half-life of 0.21 ± 0.01 h. The elimination half-life of 6.78 ± 0.06 h was relatively long and resulted from both a low total body clearance of 0.139 ± 0.007 L/h·kg and a large volume of distribution of 1.36 ± 0.06 L/kg. After oral administration to fasted chickens, the absorption of doxycycline was quite fast and substantial as shown by the absorption half-life of 0.39 ± 0.03 h, the maximal plasma concentration of 4.47 ± 0.16 —g/mL and the time to reach the Cmax of 1.73 ± 0.06 h. The distribution and the final elimination of the drug were slower than after i.v. administration. The absolute bioavailability was 73.4 ± 2.5%. The presence of food in the intestinal tract reduced and extended the absorption (t1/2a = 1.23 ± 0.21 h; Cmax = 3.07 ± 0.23 µg/mL; tmax = 3.34 ± 0.21 h). The absolute bioavailability was reduced to 61.1% ± 4.4%.
Authors:Éva J. Kaszanyitzky, Sz. Jánosi, Zsuzsanna Egyed, Gizella Ágost and G. Semjén
Based on data of the Hungarian resistance monitoring system the antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus strains of human and animal origin was studied. No methicillin-resistant staphylococci harbouring mecA gene were isolated from animals in 2001. Penicillin resistance, mediated by penicillinase production, was the most frequent among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from humans (96%), from bovine mastitis (55%), from foods (45%) and from dogs. In staphylococci isolated from animals low resistance percentages to aminoglycosides (0-2%), fluoroquinolones (0.5-3%) and sulphonamides (0.5-4%) were found but in strains isolated humans these figures were higher (1-14%, 5-18% and 3-31%, respectively). The most frequent antibiotic resistance profiles of strains isolated from animals and food were penicillin/tetracycline, penicillin/lincomycin and penicillin/lincomycin/tetracycline. Penicillin/tetracycline resistance was exhibited by strains from mastitis (3), samples from the meat industry (31), poultry flocks (1), poultry industry (1), noodle (1) and horses (2). Penicillin/lincomycin resistance was found in 10 Staphylococcus strains from mastitis, 1 from the dairy industry, 1 from the meat industry and 6 from dogs. Isolates from mastitis (2), from the dairy industry (2), from pigs (1), from the meat industry (1) and from poultry (1) harboured penicillin/lincomycin/tetracycline resistance pattern. Multiresistant strains were usually isolated only from one and sometimes from two animal species; therefore, the spread of defined resistant strains (clones) among different animal species could not be demonstrated. These results also suggest that the transfer of antibiotic resistance of S. aureus from animals to humans probably occurs less frequently than is generally assumed.