Topographic masses have a strong impact on the medium and short wavelength components of the gravitational signal generated by the mass of the Earth, thus digital terrain models (DTM) are routinely involved in gravity field modelling. In this study the verification of the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM) which is a joint product of METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan) and NASA has been done by comparing them to the points of the horizontal and vertical control networks of Hungary. SRTM data fit better to geodetic ground control points than ASTER GDEM, since some artefacts have been found in ASTER elevation set which impede further use of the latter without any pre-processing. Since SRTM is an “unclassified” surface model including all those points which reflected the scanning radar signal thus tree canopy height has been compared to the differences of SRTM and DTM elevations in a hilly test area in Hungary where a local and accurate DTM having 20 m × 20 m horizontal resolution was available. Considerable agreement was indicated between forest height and model differences. Model differences were evaluated to determine their effect synthetically on gravity related quantities. Their influence on geoid height is insignificant, but the change of the investigated second derivatives of the potential is considerable.
The cochlear nucleus is the site in the auditory pathway where the primary sensory information carried by the fibres of the acoustic nerve is transmitted to the second-order neurones. According to the generally accepted view this transmission is not a simple relay process but is considered as the first stage where the decoding of the auditory information begins. This notion is based on the diverse neurone composition and highly ordered structure of the nucleus, on the complex electrophysiological properties and activity patterns of the neurones, on the activity of local and descending modulatory mechanisms and on the presence of a highly sophisticated intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. This review puts emphasis on introducing the experimental findings supporting the above statements and on the questions which should be answered in order to gain a better understanding of the function of the cochlear nucleus.
One basic precondition for the reliable cultivation of winter durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) in Hungary is for the varieties to have good winter hardiness and frost resistance. Field overwintering experiments carried out in Martonvásár between 1995 and 2003 demonstrated that there was a significant difference every year between the overwintering of varieties with poor and good frost resistance, though only in two years was there a significant difference between that of varieties with medium and better frost resistance. Only a medium correlation was observed between the mean annual values of the air temperature in the winter months and the winter hardiness of the varieties, confirming that winter hardiness is influenced jointly by a number of environmental factors (e.g. cold, snow cover). In the experiments carried out on the winter hardiness dynamics of durum wheat, it was found that in milder winters even T. durum varieties which are sensitive to frost overwintered with little damage, while in the two coldest winters during the experimental period the hardiness of these varieties did not provide sufficient protection even in December, and all the plants were destroyed by January. The early spring frosts experienced in 1996 proved in these experiments that spring frosts may cause considerable damage even to durum wheat varieties with relatively good winter hardiness. Averaged over eight years, the results prove that T. durum genotypes are now available whose average state of hardening and winter hardiness are equal or better than those of winter T. aestivum varieties with moderate frost resistance.
In anticipation of a future vaccination program against rotavirus disease, a longitudinal survey has been set up to evaluate the epidemiologic features of rotavirus infections. In this report hospitalisation data and serotyping results are compiled from an epidemiologic survey conducted in Baranya County, Hungary. It was found that rotavirus-associated hospitalisation constituted a major part of infectious gastroenteritis cases (range, 14.9% to 28.5%). A higher proportion of rotavirus-positive cases was recorded when the serotype of predominant strains changed from G1 (1996-1999) to G4 (1999-2000), however, due to the short time period it was not possible to demonstrate a firm association between serotype prevalence and rotavirus-associated hospitalisation rate. In the future, such studies might help to understand if serotype-specific immunity against rotavirus infection plays an important role at the population level and if (re-)emerging rotavirus strains make an impact on the annual disease burden.
Depolarization-activated outward currents of bushy neurones of 6-14-day-old Wistar rats have been investigated in a brain slice preparation. Under current-clamp, the cells produced a single action potential at the beginning of suprathreshold depolarizing current steps. On voltage-clamp depolarizations, the cells produced a mixed outward K+ current that included a component with rapid activation and rapid inactivation, little TEA+ sensitivity, a half-inactivation voltage of -77 ± 2 mV (T = 25 °C; n = 7; Mean ± S.E.M.) and single-exponential recovery from inactivation (trecovery
Studies were carried out to investigate the effects of monensin and tiamulin, and the simultaneous administration of both compounds on microsomal enzymes in rats. In Phase I of the experiments the effects of monensin and tiamulin were studied separately (monensin 10, 30, and 50 mg/kg or tiamulin 40, 120, and 200 mg/kg body weight, respectively), while in Phase II the two compounds were administered simultaneously (monensin 10 mg/kg and tiamulin 40 mg/kg b.w., respectively). When monensin was administered by itself, it exerted no significant effect on microsomal liver enzymes. In a few cases, slight inhibition of certain enzyme activities was seen. Tiamulin provoked a dose-dependent hepatic enzyme induction. The combined administration of monensin and tiamulin at low doses (10 and 40 mg/kg, respectively) resulted in marked elevation of P450-related enzyme activities. The enzyme induction was more pronounced in females than in males. The results suggest that the simultaneous administration of tiamulin may influence the biotransformation of monensin, possibly increasing the amount of reactive metabolite(s) of the ionophore antibiotic.
In this study a simple and effective method was developed for the isolation of Saccharomyces strains from grapes. Aseptically collected grape samples were processed by enrichment in a nutritive basal medium supplemented with 10% (v/v) methanol followed by isolation of yeast strains. Sixteen of the 18 grape samples yielded Saccharomyces strain(s). More than 70% of the isolates belonged to the genus Saccharomyces. Based on phenotype and electrophoretic karyotyping, all strains of Saccharomyces were identified as S. cerevisiae. For several grape samples, varying physiological characters, the number of spores per asci, and the observed chromosome length polymorphisms provided evidence for diversity of S. cerevisiae strains obtained by this enrichment in methanol-containing broth. Results indicated that enrichment in methanol-containing broth is an effective alternative method to facilitate isolation of Saccharomyces strains from grapes. The enrichment method described in this work provides a simple and effective tool for isolation of Saccharomyces strains from grapes. The method may be applied in studying wine fermentation ecology, as well as for the isolation of potential starter strains from grapes.
The meat of 21 Hungarian Simmental and 17 Holstein-Friesian cattles was analysed for fatty acid and amino acid content, and also for the biological value of the meat protein. It can be established that the proportion of the saturated and the mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to each other is not significantly influenced by the breed and the live weight at the various types and weight categories. The increase in the live weight goes together with the increase in the ratio of the monounsaturated fatty acids in the meat in case of both breeds. The amino acid content of the meat was not significantly influenced by the breed, even the live weight didn't demonstrate any effects. The essential amino acid content and the biological value of the meet of the Hungarian Simmental are practically the same as those of the Holstein-Friesian.
In order to analyse the effects of temperature (9–22 °C) and light intensity (170–576 μmol m
) on plant development two barley varieties with contrasting seasonal growth habits were included in a series of experiments consisting of controlled environment tests. The effect of constant (18 °C) and daily fluctuating (18/16 °C) temperature with a long photoperiod was also examined in a set of barley varieties including winter, facultative and spring barleys. Dicktoo with facultative growth habit was more sensitive to unfavourable conditions than Kompolti korai with winter growth habit; the flowering of Dicktoo was significantly delayed by sub-and supra-optimal temperatures and low light intensity accompanied by higher or fluctuating temperatures. The optimal temperature at flowering was also significantly lower for Dicktoo than for Kompolti korai (16.0 °C vs. 21.0 °C, respectively). Plant development was the fastest when there was no fluctuating environmental factor in the growing conditions and was significantly delayed with application of photo cycle. The addition of thermo cycle to photo cycle had an even stronger delaying effect. Facultative barleys were the most sensitive, followed by winter barleys, while spring barleys the least sensitive to the introduction of thermo cycle.