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The main objective of the DOSoReMI.hu (Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary) project is to significantly extend the potential, how demands on spatial soil related information could be satisfied in Hungary. Although a great amount of soil information is available due to former mappings and surveys, there are more and more frequently emerging discrepancies between the available and the expected data. The gaps are planned to be filled with optimized digital soil mapping (DSM) products heavily based on legacy soil data, which still represent a valuable treasure of soil information at the present time. The paper presents three approaches for the application of Hungarian legacy soil data in object oriented digital soil mapping.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
A. Bagdi
,
G. Balázs
,
J. Schmidt
,
M. Szatmári
,
R. Schoenlechner
,
E. Berghofer
, and
S. Tömösközia

Six varieties of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) and two commercially available millets were investigated in the present study. In order to explore the nutritional potential, major nutrient composition, mineral composition, antioxidant capacity, total phenols content (related to the antioxidant capacity) and dietary fibre content were determined. The effects of decortication on these components were examined. In addition, protein profile of the varieties and amylose/amylopectin ratio of the starch were examined. The range of the values measured for major nutrient composition corresponds with data of other millet species published in earlier studies. Remarkable differences were found among the protein contents of the varieties (11.58–14.80%). Although the concentration of minerals was low in the varieties examined, in comparison with other cereals wholegrain millet seems to be nutritionally valuable because of their high dietary fibre content. Decortication had no effect on the protein and fat content of millets, however, it significantly decreased the content of crude fibre, dietary fibre, minerals, total phenols content and antioxidant capacity. Consequently the applicability of millets as functional food decreases. Decortication had no effect on the amylose/amylopectin ratio of millet. No varietal differences were found in terms of protein characteristics.

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The development of local early basal resistance (EBR), is a form of non-specific general defence response of plants to bacteria, greatly depending on temperature. This symptomless defence mechanism is easily detected by its inhibitory action on the hypersensitive response (HR) caused by a subsequent incompatible pathogenic bacterium. Both EBR and HR were investigated at different temperatures ranging from 30 °C to 5 °C. At normal temperatures (30-20 °C) both heat-killed Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae 61 (polyvirulent to many plants) and Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola S21 (pathogenic to bean) induced EBR in tobacco leaves within a few hours, but below 10 °C it was greatly delayed and at 5 °C usually no EBR response could be detected within 2-3 days. The time required for development of EBR did not depend on the bacterial pathovars or strains. However, the induction time of HR was not as sensitive to low temperatures as that of EBR, instead, it depended on the bacterial pathovars used.

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Basal resistance (BR, a local resistance against pathogens induced by general elicitors) is a multi-faceted defence mechanism appearing in many shapes and with many given names, such as induced (acquired) resistance (protection, defence), as well as a part of innate immunity. Here, we give a historical overview of concepts, present results and an outlook associated with bacteriological studies in the Plant Protection Institute (PPI). The topics on BR briefly covered are its elicitors, light and temperature dependence, changes in plant physiology, transcription and protein expression during it and its effect on bacteria. We emphasize the importance and relevance of its quick form, early BR, which might be a plant defence mechanism in nature against all kinds of pathogenic and saprophytic bacteria.

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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors:
A. A. Czelleng
,
Z. Bozsó
,
P. G. Ott
,
E. Besenyei
,
G. J. Varga
,
Á. Szatmári
,
Y. M. Hafez
, and
Z. Klement

Pseudomonas viridiflava is an opportunistic, post-harvest pathogenic bacterium that causes soft rot of fruits and vegetables. In vivo expression technology was used to identify genes that participate in the pathogenicity of P. viridiflava. Genetic loci that are induced in planta were identified. Ten such loci were partially sequenced and annotated. Here we describe five of them, which influence the pathogen's stress tolerance in planta. Three of the identified ORFs that show sequence identity to known genes encode membrane proteins, the remaining two encode enzymes in catabolic pathways.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
R. Kiss
,
G. Szita
,
M. Herpay
,
Gy. Csikó
,
J. Pászti
,
T. Mag
,
P. Kovács
,
G. Kovács
,
J. Szita
,
P. Tóth
,
I. Szatmári
, and
S. Bernáth

The authors investigated the possibility of the presence of VTEC strains in improperly pasteurized milk samples. A total of 64 Escherichia coli strains were isolated from 135 pasteurized milk samples originating from the same producer. The examined isolates contained 29 haemolysin-, 9 colicin- and 5 aerobactin-producing strains, but the investigations concerning heat-resistant and heat-sensitive toxins gave negative results.Six O128-type E. coli strains exerted a cytotoxic effect on the VERO cell line; 5 of them contained H12 antigen, while one could not be typed. Four of the 6 verocytotoxin-producing strains belonged in phage group 20, one in phage group (2)3(7), and one in phage group 4; four strains were of B3, one of A1, and one of A1(A2) phage type.Because of a technical failure the milk was pasteurized at 69 °C for 15 s, which is 2 °C less than required. The results underline the importance of the appropriate pasteurization temperature, as otherwise the milk may contain verocytotoxin-producing E. coli, which is a potentially great hazard for public health.

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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors:
A. Czelleng
,
Z. Bozsó
,
P. Ott
,
E. Besenyei
,
G. Varga
,
A. Szatmári
,
E. Szabó
,
L. Zsiros
, and
Z. Klement

Compared to the known method of conjugation the frequency of transposon mutagenesis following conjugation was enhanced 11-fold by two hours of pre-incubation of recipient Pseudomonas viridiflava 1 on conjugation media. The increased frequency was ƒ = 1.3 × 10 −4 . In other species of Pseudomonas, Pectobacteira and Xanthomonas high rates of transposon mutants were similarly obtained; however, in these strains the increased frequency was less than 5-fold.

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