The Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire (Franziszeische Landesaufnahme) was based on the first triangulation net of the Empire, ordered by Emperor Francis I in 1806. Eight horizontal control points were later used as projection centers for the different parts of the Empire. However, two provinces, mapped in the very early phase of the survey, have no real terrain objects as projection centers. In spite of the earlier literature items, mainly concerning the cadastral systems, the map sheet systems of the Second Military Survey of Tyrol and Salzburg do not follow the Soldner-Cassini projections centered at Innsbruck and Gusterberg, respectively. Indeed, the design of these sheets is similar to the one of the First Military Survey in cartographic point of view also with respect to their projection. The systems of the 1:28 800 sheets in these provinces are not centered at Vienna (St. Stephen) or Gusterberg as it was indicated in the literature. Projection analysis shows that for these provinces a unified sheet system was introduced. It can be connected to an Innsbruck-Pfarrturm-centered Cassini projection but the projection center is not at any distinct point (sheet center, corner or boundary halving point) of the sheet system. This Cassini projection, however, is not suitable for precise georeferencing of the sheets of Tyrol and Salzburg as it results errors up to one kilometer. The map sheets of these provinces can be rectified using quadratic formulae with remnant errors of maximum 220 meters (Tyrol) and 500 meters (Salzburg), which are much higher values than the fitting accuracy of the sheets in other parts of the Empire. According to the analysis, Liechtenstein is also without definite projection center but it is covered by only one extended sheet and its rectification can be done with an accuracy of 30 meters.
The original map sheets of the Third Military Survey of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy cannot be mosaicked in their original, printed form because of their uneven trapezoid format. To make a digitized raster mosaic of the individual sheets, they all should be georeferenced. Instead of the original projections, which vary from sheet to sheet, a series of sinusoid projections was defined, one unique projection for each sheet columns. The sinusoid projection provides an appropriate approximation of the original trapezoid forms and size of the sheets. Each sheet were rectified in the respective projection then reprojected to a general conic projection, defined for the final mosaic. After all of those transformations, the transformed digital content of the sheets fits to each other well enough to make a geo-referred mosaic. The location parameters of the geodetic datum used for transformation to modern projection systems are the followings:
= +600 m;
= +205 m;
= +437 m. These figures gives exact fit at the fundamental point of Hermannskogel. Because of the not unified geodetic adjustment of the original base point system, using one unified datum causes a maximum error of 220 meters throughout the whole territory of the Monarchy and the adjacent area on the maps.
The labelling system, the projection and the datum parameters of the sheets of the 1:75 000 scale Romanian topographic map series completed prior to World War I, are described in order to integrate them to GIS databases. The series has two zones, eastern and western, both on the Bonne projection with different parameters. The sheets from each zone should be handled in a slightly different way in order to rectify them. The eastern sheets can be rectified using the grid coordinates computed from the sheet labels of the corner points. In the case of the western zone sheets, the geographic coordinates are computed from the sheet labels or directly from the graticule corners reprojected on the respective Bonne projection. The abridged Molodenskyparameters for the datums of the two zones are also given. The rectified sheets integrated to a GIS database provide an interesting source of the natural and built environment of the early 20th century Romania.
Authors:Laszlo Harsing, G. Zsilla, P. Matyus, K. Nagy, B. Marko, Zs. Gyarmati, and J. Timar
Glycine is a mandatory positive allosteric modulator of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type ionotropic glutamate receptors in the central nervous system. Elevation of glycine concentrations by inhibition of its reuptake in the vicinity of NMDA receptors may positively influence receptor functions as glycine B binding site on NR1 receptor subunit is not saturated in physiological conditions. Synaptic and extrasynaptic concentrations of glycine are regulated by its type-1 glycine transporter, which is primarily expressed in astroglial and glutamatergic cell membranes. Alteration of synaptic glycine levels may have importance in the treatment of various forms of endogenous psychosis characterized by hypofunctional NMDA receptors. Several lines of evidence indicate that impaired NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in development of the negative (and partly the positive) symptoms and the cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. Inhibitors of glycine transporter type-1 may represent a newly developed therapeutic intervention in treatment of this mental illness. We have synthesized a novel series of N-substituted sarcosines, analogues of the glycine transporter-1 inhibitor NFPS (N-[3-(4′-fluorophenyl)-3-(4′-phenylphenoxy)-propyl]sarcosine). Of the pyridazinone-containing compounds, SzV-1997 was found to be a potent glycine transporter-1 inhibitor in rat brain synaptosomes and it markedly increased extracellular glycine concentrations in conscious rat striatum. SzV-1997 did not exhibit toxic symptoms such as hyperlocomotion, restless movements, respiratory depression, and lethality, characteristic for NFPS. Besides pyridazinone-based, sarcosine-containing glycine transporter-1 inhibitors, a series of substrate-type amino acid inhibitors was investigated in order to obtain better insight into the ligand-binding characteristics of the substrate binding cavity of the transporter.
Authors:J. Pauk, C. Lantos, G. Somogyi, P. Vági, Z. Ábrahám Táborosi, A. Gémes Juhász, R. Mihály, Z. Kristóf, N. Somogyi, and Z. Tímár
Spice pepper production has a history of almost 300 years in the southern part of Hungary. In this study the results of two biotechnological improvements are summarized. Anther and isolated microspore culture techniques were improved to release haploid and doubled haploid (DH) lines for spice pepper breeding. Both the anther and isolated microspore culture methods were successfully used in spice pepper haploid production. Microspore culture-derived structures were analysed to identify their different parts. Green plantlets were regenerated from embryos derived from both anther and microspore cultures. Their doubled haploid analogues were integrated into Hungarian spice pepper hybrid seed breeding programmes. One hybrid, Sláger, was released as a new genotype for spice pepper production in 2008 and two hybrid candidates (Délibáb and Bolero) are now being tested in official trials.