Mortaria were used in Pannonia in the entire Roman period, but they changed in form and material from time to time. Potter’s stamps indicate that some of them were imported goods, but they were mostly local products. The article deals with mortaria found in Zalalövő (ancient Salla) between 1973 and 2005 and tries to draw a picture of the chronology and the provenance of the different
Ca salts of suberic (Ca-Sub) and pimelic acid (Ca-Pim) were synthesized and used as β-nucleating agents in different grades
of isotactic polypropylene (IPP). Propylene homo-, random- and block-copolymers containing these additives crystallize principally
in pure β-modification as demonstrated in isothermal and non-isothermal crystallization experiments. Ca-Sub proved the most
effective β-nucleating agent known, so far. It broadens the upper crystallization temperature range of pure β-IPP formation
up to 140C. The effect of the additives on the crystallization and melting characteristics of the polymers was studied. The
degree of crystallinity of the β-modification was found to be markedly higher than that of α-IPP. High temperature melting
peak broadening was first observed and discussed in literary results regarding the same phenomenon for α-IPP.
Crystallization, melting and structure of three different commercial types of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) grafted by maleic
anhydride (PP-g-MAH) with different maleic anhydride content (AC) and their β-nucleated versions were studied by X-ray diffractometry
(WAXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarised light microscopy (PLM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
The presence of maleic anhydride units disturbs the chain regularity, hereby decreases the crystallization tendency of iPP
in general and the β-crystallisation ability in particular. β-modification of iPP (β-iPP) forms only in β-nucleated PP-g-MAH
polymers studied if the anhydride content is not larger than 0.5 mass%. The influence of AC of PP-g-MAH on the feature the
spherulitic structure is demonstrated by PLM and SEM micrographs. The β-nucleated iPP/PP-g-MAH blends containing 10 mass%
PP-g-MAH crystallise predominantly in β-form independently of AC of the latter. The β-nuceated blends of iPP and PP-g-MAH
with lowest AC crystallise in β-form in whole concentration range. The interaction parameter between iPP and PP-g-MAH polymers
calculated by Nishi-Wang equation indicate limited interaction between the components.
A method has been developed for determining silicon in aluminium by fast neutron activation. It is based on the separation
of two gamma lines by a Ge(Li) detector: the 1.73 MeV line from the product of27Al(n, α)24Na and the 1.78 MeV line from the28Si(n, p)28Al reaction. In the case of aluminium-silicon alloys 100 μg silicon can be determined, with an error of 10% in an aluminium
sample of 1 g.
The importance of short food supply chains is increasing in the food sector, and direct selling is a promising alternative to commercial chains in dairy trade. Several channels and practices of direct raw milk sales exist in Hungary. Because short food supply chains in the Hungarian dairy sector have not yet been investigated in detail, we have little or no knowledge on the composition of directly sold raw milk. For this reason, a 9-month study was undertaken from June 2013 through February 2014, wherein directly sold raw bovine milk samples were tested for fat, protein, lactose, and solids-not-fat contents and for freezing point. A total of 21 direct sellers located in Budapest, Hungary were sampled twice a month. The results were compared to the official Hungarian raw milk quality data referring to the same period. The direct milk vendors involved in this study were found to sell raw milk with reduced levels of lactose and solids-not-fat and elevated freezing points, compared to the national raw milk data. The findings of this research underline the need for stricter regulations and control with respect to direct raw milk sales in the country.
The nucleating efficiency and selectivity of different
β-nucleating agents was characterised and compared by differential scanning
calorimetry, (DSC) and temperature-modulated DSC (TMDSC). The nucleating agents
were the calcium salts of pimelic and suberic acid (Ca-pim and Ca-sub), linear trans-γ-quinacridone (LTQ), a commercial nucleator
NJ Star (NJS) and an experimental product (CGX-220). The efficiency and the
selectivity of Ca-sub and Ca-pim are extremely high. NJS is efficient above
a critical concentration, which is connected with its partial dissolution
in polypropylene melt. LTQ and CGX-220 possess strong overall nucleating ability
and moderate selectivity. Using TMDSC, we found that three consecutive processes
take place during the heating of β-nucleated samples cooled down to room
temperature: reversible partial melting of the β-form, irreversible βα-recrystallisation,
and the melting of the α-modification formed during βα-recrystallisation
or being present in samples prepared with non-selective β-nucleators.
Melting of the α-phase contains both reversible and irreversible components.