The reactions between silicon nitride and carbon take place in two stages, the surface silica of silicon nitride powders reacts
with carbon first followed by the decomposition of silicon nitride and the residual silicon reacting with carbon. The kinetics
of the two stage reactions has been studied by isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. Physico-geometric models for both of
the reaction stages have been proposed, and the kinetic parameters have been calculated. The implications of the kinetic models
and parameters are discussed.
Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 11 morphometric body measurements of the hybrids of silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis) including body weight (BW), standard length (SL), body depth (BD), body thickness (BT), head length (HL), head depth (HD), length of ventral keel (LVK), length of pectoral fin (Lpec), length of pelvic fin (Lpel), length of caudal fin (Lcau) and space between pectoral and pelvic fins (SPP) were located on the sex average microsatellite linkage map constructed using the hybrids of a female bighead and a male silver carp, on which 15 microsatellites were newly mapped. One locus was found to be responsible for BW, LV K and SPP, respectively. As many as 6 loci were found to be responsible for HD. The variances of remaining traits were partitioned by different numbers of loci varying between 2 and 5. The variance explained each locus ranged from 9.1% to 23.8% of the total. The variance explained by all loci responsible for each measurement ranged from 17.7% to 75.1%. It was noted that multiple measurements were mapped on the same locus. For example, a region bounded by Hym435 and Hym145 was found to be responsible for all the measurements analyzed.
Authors:S. Du, G. Zhang, H. Li, P. Wang, and X. Wang
The free-radical bulk polymerization of 2,2-dinitro-1-butyl-acrylate (DNBA) in the presence of 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile
(AIBN) as the initiator was investigated by DSC in the non-isothermal mode. Kissinger and Ozawa methods were applied to determine
the activation energy (Ea) and the reaction order of free-radical polymerization. The results showed that the temperature of exothermic polymerization
peaks increased with increasing the heating rate. The reaction order of non-isothermal polymerization of DNBA in the presence
of AIBN is approximately 1. The average activation energy (92.91±1.88 kJ mol −1) obtained was smaller slightly than the value of Ea=96.82 kJ mol−1 found with the Barrett method.
2,2-dinitropropyl acrylate (DNPA), 2,2-dinitrobutyl acrylate (DNBA) and 2,2-dinitrobutyl methacrylate (DNBMA) were synthesized
and the kinetics of their free-radical polymerization in the presence of 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) were investigated
by DSC in the non-isothermal mode. The kinetics of the free-radical polymerization as estimated by the Kissinger and Ozawa
methods showed that the reaction is disfavoured by increasing steric hindrance around the acrylyl double bond. The rate constants
calculated from the activation parameters showed the structural dependency. The polymerization kinetics revealed that the
polymerizability of three monomers decreased due to the presence of substituent methyl groups on the acrylyl double bond and
2,2-dinitrobutyl on ester group. Thus, the polymerization tendency increased in the order DNPA>DNBA>DNBMA.
The extraction of U(VI) with newly synthesized long chain alkyl amide, N,N-dibutyldodecanamide (DBDA), in toluene has been studied. The dependence of the extraction on nitric acid and DBDA concentrations and temperature from nitric acid solution has been considered. The extracted species has also been investigated using FT-IR spectrometry. The related thermodynamic functions were calculated. The separation factor between U(VI) and Th(IV) is higher and there is no third phase formation under the conditions studied.
Maize seeds from inbred line Mo17, susceptible to Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), were investigated for SCMV seed transmission. The seed quality significantly influenced the seed transmission rate. There were more infected seedlings derived from larger seeds than smaller seeds in both golden (G) and buff (B) seed groups, the proportion of infected seedlings in G1 was similar to G2 and B1, and significantly higher than the others (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). While the proportion of SCMV seed transmission was higher in golden (3.9%) than buff seeds groups (2.3%), and there were significantly difference (P < 0.05) between the both colors seeds. However the percentage of infected seedlings was closely related to the location of seeds on ears, most infected seedlings were derived from seeds of the middle (Part III) and mid-base regions (Part IV), and the both parts (Parts III and IV) were significantly higher than that of Part I (P < 0.05). Fisher’s exact test indicated that the seed quality was associated significantly with the efficiency of SCMV seed transmission.
A new method using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) in combination with tandem mass spectrometry and a multiple reaction monitoring mode (UPLC-MS/MS-MRM) was developed for simultaneous quantitative determination of anthraquinone derivatives in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei-based medicines. A multi-mode electrospray/chemical ionization (ESCI) and negative ion mode with [M-H]− and its fragments under collision-activated conditions were employed in MS/MS-MRM. The quantitative method was validated and applied to simultaneous determination of anthraquinone derivatives in 21 Radix et Rhizoma Rhei-based medicines. The limits of quantification were in the range of 3.90–9.09 ng mL−1. Average recoveries were between 95.5% and 99.8% with relative standard deviations from 1.8% to 5.3%.
N,N,N,N-tetrabutylmalonamide (TBMA) was synthesized and used for extraction of uranyl(II) ion from nitric acid media in toluene. The effects of nitric acid concentration, extractant concentration, temperature and salting-out agent (LiNO3) on distribution coefficients of uranyl(II) ion have been studied. The extraction of nitric acid is also studied. The main adduct of TBMA and HNO3 is HNO3. TBMA in 1.0 mol/l nitric acid solution. The 1:2:3 complex of uranyl(II) ion, nitrate ion and TBMA as extracted species is further confirmed by IR spectra of the extraction of uranyl(II) ion with TBMA, and found that the NO
in the extraction species UO2(NO3)2·3TBMA did not participate in coordination of uranyl(II) ion. The values of thermodynamic parameters have also been calculated.
The 'in-diffusion method was used to study the diffusion behavior of Eu(III) in compacted bentonite. The results (Kd, apparent and effective diffusion coefficients) derived from the capillary method are in good agreement with the literature data for similar bentonite dry densities and similar radionuclide concentrations, and fits the Fick's second law very well. The method was used to study the effect of solution concentration (10-7-10-3 mol/l) on the diffusion and sorption behavior in compacted bentonite. The experiments were carried out in synthetic groundwater, at room temperature. The results suggested that the diffusion of Eu(III) in the bentonite was independent on the density of bentonite, but dependent on the solution concentration. In agreement to the literature, the Kd values from the capillary experiments are in most cases lower than those from batch experiments, they are about one-half to one-third the value to those from batch experiments. The difference between the Kdvalues from capillary and batch experiments are a strong function of the bulk density of the bentonite. The results suggest that the content of interlaminary space plays a very important role to the transport of Eu(III) in compacted bentonite.
Four new complexes of UO2(II) and Th(IV) with bis-Schiff bases, derived from N,N'-bis[(l-phenyl-3-methyl-5-oxo-4-pyrazolinyl)-a-furylmethylidyne]-1,2-propylenediimine [1,2-BPMOPFP-H2] and N,N'- bis[(l-phenyl-3-methyl-5-oxo-4-pyrazolinyl)-a-furylmethylidyne]-1,3-propylenediimine [1,3-BPMOPFP-H2], were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV, 1HNMR spectroscopy, and molar conductivity. The general formula of the complexes was confirmed to be [UO2(BPMOPFP)], [Th(BPMOPFP)(NO3)]NO3. A possible structure for the complexes have been proposed.