The activity of copper containing catalysts for the formation of methanol from CO and H2 is investigated by DSC measurement of the methanol decomposition. Calibration of the DSC signal can be performed by melting experiments with tin under reaction conditions. Comparison of catalysts is well possible by measurement of the standard activity at 240°, the apparent activation energy for the methanol decomposition reaction and the aging of the catalyst samples.
Authors:G. Xu, L. Zhang, L. Liu, G. Liu, and D. Jia
Thermal behaviors of two mixed-ligand complexes, [Ni(PMPP-SAL)(Py)3] and [Cu(PMPP-SAL)Py]·MeOH, (PMPP-SAL=1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-(salicylidene hydrazide)-propenylidene-pyrazolone-5, Py=pyridine),
were studied by TG-DTG-DTA in dynamic air atmosphere. The complexes show the loss of pyridine molecule is followed by the
decomposition of the PMPP-SAL anion and give respective metal oxides as residues. Meanwhile, the Ozawa-Flynn-Wall model-free
analyses and multivariate non-linear regressions were applied to perform single and overall steps optimization. Kinetic parameters
were given and the most probable mechanism functions were suggested in this study.
Authors:Y. Wang, L. Yin, G. Lv, Y. Xu, L. Xu, Y. Qi, L. Zheng, and J. Peng
In the present paper, a simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method was developed both for quantitative determination and fingerprint analysis of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb for quality control. Under the optimized HPLC conditions, seven bioactive compounds including rutin, quercetin-3-rhamnoside, luteoloside, tiliroside, apigenin, kaempferol, and agrimonolide were determined simultaneously. For fingerprint analysis, 11 common peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks to evaluate the similarities of 16 different samples collected from different origins in China. Besides, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was also performed to evaluate the variation of the raw materials. This is the first report of using a simple method for quality control of A. pilosa Ledeb through multi-component determination and chromatographic fingerprint analysis to the best of our knowledge.
Authors:X. Feng, S. Lo, G. Ji, Y. Jiang, and Y. Xu
The production rates (numbers of atoms per gram of the respective elements per second) of 40 radioactive nuclides of 34 elements by neutron capture reactions in a reactor were determined from about 130 photopeaks of the -ray spectra. The ratios of these production rates were called R-matrix elements. These production rates and the respective thermal neutron capture cross sections were used to calculate the respective apparent neutron fluxes at the position of irradiation and the -matrix elements which were the ratios of these apparent neutron fluxes. These matrix elements express clearly the correlations among various elements and thus may be used in the mono-standard or small-number-standards method in neutron activation analysis.
Supramolecular 2,3- and 2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate (PDC) intercalated
ZnAl-layered double hydroxides (2,3- and 2,5-PDC–ZnAl–LDHs) have
been prepared by ion exchange method. The structure and composition of the
intercalated materials have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and inductively
coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP). The study indicates that the 2,3-PDC
and 2,5-PDC anions are accommodated as interdigitated bilayer and monolayer
arrangement respectively between the sheets of LDHs. Furthermore, their thermal
decomposition processes were studied by the use of in situ high temperature
X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD), and the combined technique of thermogravimetry-differential
thermal analysis-mass spectrometry (TG-DTA-MS) under N2 atmosphere. Based
on the comparison study on the temperatures of both decarboxylation and complete
decomposition of interlayer PDC, it can be concluded that 2,5-PDC–ZnAl–LDHs
has higher thermal stability than that of 2,3-PDC–ZnAl–LDHs.
A simple and rapid method, using online ultraperformance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-eλ-ESI-MS/MS), was developed for the in-depth analysis of 50 batches Radix et Rhizoma Rhei. The analysis was performed on a UPLC BEH C18 column using a gradient elution system. Baseline separation could be achieved in less than 7.5 min. At the same time, on the basis of the 50 batches of samples collected from representative cultivated regions, a novel chromatographic fingerprint was devised by UPLC-PDA, in which 27 common peaks were detected and identified by the developed UPLC-MS/MS method step by step according to fragmentation mechanisms, MS/MS data, standards, and relevant literature. Many active components gave prominent [M - H]− ions in the ESI mass spectra. These components include anthraquinones, sennosides, stilbenes, glucose gallates, naphthalenes, and catechins. Furthermore, based on the information of these Radix et Rhizoma Rhei components, and further combined with discriminant analysis, a novel discriminant analysis equation (DAE) was established for the quality control of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei for the first time.
Authors:Q. Xu, G. Griffin, I. Burch, Y. Jiang, C. Preston, A. Bicknell, G. Bradbury, and N. White
Cone calorimeter tests were conducted to investigate the flammability of glass-reinforced plastics (GRP) panels. The results
gained from these bench scale tests were used to predict the time to flashover in the ISO 9705 room, which was partly covered
by GRP panels. Östman and Tsantaridis’ empirical linear regression model and multiple discriminant function analysis (MDA)
were used in the prediction. Three room-scale GRP fire tests were conducted in ISO 9705 room and the results were compared
with the prediction.
Authors:Q. Xu, G. Griffin, Y. Jiang, C. Preston, A. Bicknell, G. Bradbury, and N. White
Burning behavior of small-scale wood crib was studied by a serial of cone calorimeter tests. The heat release rate curves
of these small wood cribs were different due to porosity factor and this shows that the control condition switches from one
to another. The burning of some crib with small porosity factors was self-extinguished in fixed flow rate of air supply in
cone calorimeter. These results were compared with Gross’s studies. The switch point of porosity-controlled and surface area
controlled burning regime is different from Gross’s result.
Authors:Q. Xu, G. Griffin, Y. Jiang, A. Bicknell, G. Bradbury, and N. White
Wood cribs free burning tests were conducted under ISO9705 hood. From the tests, the heat release rate of these cribs was
grouped as 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 MW. This result was used to correct an empirical formula for peak heat release rate calculation.
The correction achieves acceptable accuracy for the typical wood. The test result also shown heat release rate curve can be
normalized by the total combustion surface of the wood crib. This can also be used to predict the HRR of wood crib of certain
sizes and structures.