The enthalpies of dilution, ΔdilHm, have been measured for LiCl+Li2B4O7+H2O system at T=298.15 K by using a RD496-III microcalorimeter. A suitable measurement method was used to obtain the better data of the enthalpies
of dilution for the ternary mixing solutions to low concentrations. The relative apparent molar enthalpies, Lϕ, have been determined and the relationships between Lϕ and ionic strength I at different molal fractions of Li2B4O7 were obtained. The effect of the borate Li2B4O7 on the heat properties for the studied system was discussed.
A simple and rapid method, using online ultraperformance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-eλ-ESI-MS/MS), was developed for the in-depth analysis of 50 batches Radix et Rhizoma Rhei. The analysis was performed on a UPLC BEH C18 column using a gradient elution system. Baseline separation could be achieved in less than 7.5 min. At the same time, on the basis of the 50 batches of samples collected from representative cultivated regions, a novel chromatographic fingerprint was devised by UPLC-PDA, in which 27 common peaks were detected and identified by the developed UPLC-MS/MS method step by step according to fragmentation mechanisms, MS/MS data, standards, and relevant literature. Many active components gave prominent [M - H]− ions in the ESI mass spectra. These components include anthraquinones, sennosides, stilbenes, glucose gallates, naphthalenes, and catechins. Furthermore, based on the information of these Radix et Rhizoma Rhei components, and further combined with discriminant analysis, a novel discriminant analysis equation (DAE) was established for the quality control of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei for the first time.
Authors:Y. Wang, L. Yin, G. Lv, Y. Xu, L. Xu, Y. Qi, L. Zheng, and J. Peng
In the present paper, a simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method was developed both for quantitative determination and fingerprint analysis of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb for quality control. Under the optimized HPLC conditions, seven bioactive compounds including rutin, quercetin-3-rhamnoside, luteoloside, tiliroside, apigenin, kaempferol, and agrimonolide were determined simultaneously. For fingerprint analysis, 11 common peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks to evaluate the similarities of 16 different samples collected from different origins in China. Besides, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was also performed to evaluate the variation of the raw materials. This is the first report of using a simple method for quality control of A. pilosa Ledeb through multi-component determination and chromatographic fingerprint analysis to the best of our knowledge.
Authors:Qi Chen, Lina Wang, G. Jones, W. Metzner, F. Xuan, Jiangxia Yin, and Y. Sun
FoxP2 is a member of the winged helix/forkhead class of transcription factors. Despite FoxP2 is found to have particular relevance to speech and language, the role of this gene is broader and not yet fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the expression of FoxP2 in the brains of bats with different feeding habits (two frugivorous species and three insectivorous species). We found FoxP2 expression in the olfactory tubercle of frugivorous species is significantly higher than that in insectivorous species. Difference of FoxP2 expression was not observed within each of the frugivorous or insectivorous group. The diverse expression patterns in olfactory tubercle between two kinds of bats indicate FoxP2 has a close relation with olfactory tubercle associated functions, suggesting its important role in sensory integration within the olfactory tubercle and such a discrepancy of FoxP2 expression in olfactory tubercle may take responsibility for the different feeding behaviors of frugivorous and insectivorous bats.
Authors:Y. Wang, M. Xu, G. Yin, L. Tao, D. Wang, and X. Ye
Although significant progress has been made on
-mediated wheat transformation, the current methodologies use immature embryos as recipient tissues, a process which is labor intensive, time consuming and expensive. In this study, we have managed to develop an
-based transformation scheme using explants derived from mature embryos. Based on transient expression of
-glucuronidase (GUS) marker, mature embryo halves prepared from freshly imbibed seeds were generally most susceptible to
-mediated T-DNA transfer. According to the results of callus induction and shoot production, Yumai 66 and Lunxuan 208 showed higher selection and regeneration efficiency than Bobwhite. In line with this finding, fertile T
transgenic plants were most readily obtained for both spring and winter wheat when mature embryo halves were used for co-inoculation by
cells. The presence of the antibiotic selection marker (
, encoding neomycin phosphotransferase II) in the T
plants was revealed by both genomic PCR amplification and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Additional analysis showed that the transgene was stably inherited from the two different generations and segregated normally among the T
progenies. Further development along this line will raise the efficiency of wheat transformation and increase the use of this approach in the molecular breeding of wheat crop.