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In the present study on the self-incompatibility in inbred lines of ten local Indian cultivars (Pusa Chetki, Chetki Long, Aushi, Alipur Local White, Jaunpuri, Half Red, Scarlet Red, Chinese Pink, Desi Red and Khasi Kata) of radish ( Raphanus sativus L.), Pusa Chetki, Chetki Long, Aushi, Alipur Local White and Jaunpuri were classed as selfcompatible, Half Red, Scarlet Red and Chinese Pink as intermediate and Desi Red and Khasi Kata as self-incompatible. The highest number of germinated pollen grains and pollen tubes was observed in Pusa Chetki, followed by Alipur Local White, Jaunpuri, Aushi and Chetki Long. The discrepancy in the number of germinated pollen grains in the stigmas may be explained by the inhibitory action of large numbers of self-incompatible pollen grains on the stigma. When two lines, Desi Red and Khasi Kata, were grown under different temperature and photoperiod conditions, no breakdown in self-incompatibility was observed, and the flowering periods of these lines are naturally well synchronized. It is well known that uniform and effective cross-pollination may be of great importance for obtaining a high quantity of hybrid seed in self-incompatible types. To produce single cross hybrid seed, the inbred lines Desi Red and Khasi Kata can be used as parental lines.

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Studies on (non) energetic compounds

Part 38. Kinetics of thermolysis of dichloroanilinium bromide salts

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: G. Singh, P. Srivastava, and J. Srivastava

Abstract  

Five salts of dichloroanilinium bromide (DCABr) were prepared and characterized by elemental and spectral studies. The thermal decomposition of DCABr was studied by using TG-DTG-DTA techniques and the results are discussed here. Kinetic parameters with the help of model fitting and isoconversional methods have been evaluated critically. A mechanism of decomposition has also been suggested.

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The thermal decomposition studies on nitrophenates of copper, nickel and cobalt have been undertaken,α-t curves show dehydration of these compounds at lower temperatures whereas dehydration cum decomposition seem to occur at higher temperatures leading to oxidative combustion of aromatic part. NO2 gas is evolved during decomposition which seems to be responsible for oxidative reactions leading to detonation. The explosion temperature and velocity of detonation have been found to be linearly related with the number of nitro groups. The mechanism of thermal explosion has also been discussed.

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Abstract  

Three phenylenediammonium sulfate (PDAS) salts were prepared under solvent free conditions and characterized by gravimetric, spectroscopic and elemental analyses. Thermal decomposition studies of the salts have been investigated using TG (static air), TG/DTG and DSC (inert atmosphere). The thermal decomposition pathways have also been suggested and it has been found that PDAS salts on heating under vacuum in solid state give diaminobenzene sulfonic acids (DABSA) via proton transfer.

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A set of 286 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) along with the parents and a popular wheat variety in India were grown for two consecutive years at three locations belonging to the two major wheat growing zones of India and evaluated for four grain quality traits. Rare recombinants with high trait value appeared for protein content (PC), thousand-kernel weight (TKW), sedimentation value (SV), and kernel hardness (KH). The magnitude of environmental effects was more pronounced than genotypic effects and genotype-environment interaction (GEI). The cumulative contribution of environment and GEI components to the total variance was highest in the expression of PC followed by TKW, SV, and KH. The top five percent (14 RILs) of genotypes with high trait value were subjected to Eberhart and Russell (1966) (ER), genotype and genotype-environment (GGE) and additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) stability models. Five RILs were identified as stable in all the three stability models. RIL61 with 38.8%, RIL101 with 8.9%, RIL226 with 26.1% superiority over check variety were the most stable genotypes in all the three stability models for PC, TKW and KH, respectively. RIL113 was found to be stable genotype in ER and GGE models, whereas, RIL231 was the most stable genotype in AMMI and GGE models in the expression of SV. These common stable genotypes with high trait value identified through ER, AMMI and GGE models could be potential donors in active breeding programs to develop high yielding wheat varieties with improved PC, TKW, SV and KH.

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Selection on the basis of grain yield per se for improved performance under excessive moisture stress has often been misleading and considered inefficient. We assessed the importance of secondary traits of adaptive value under waterlogging stress. During the 2000–2004 summer-rainy seasons twelve trials were conducted and a total of 436 tropical/subtropical inbred lines (S 4 –S n ) were evaluated under excessive soil moisture stress. Excessive moisture treatment was applied at V 6–7 growth stage by flooding the experimental plots continuously for seven days. Different phenological and physiological parameters were recorded before, during and either immediately or 1–2 weeks after exposure to stress. Excessive moisture conditions significantly affected all the morphological and physiological traits studied. However, there was significant genetic variability for various traits, especially for root porosity and brace root development that were induced under excessive moisture. Across the trials, significant genetic correlations (p<0.01) was obtained between grain yield and different secondary traits, including ears per plant, root porosity, brace root fresh weight, number of nodes with brace roots and anthesis silking interval. Broad-sense heritability decreased under excessive moisture stress conditions for most of the traits; however, it increased significantly for root porosity, nodal root development and ears per plant. Our findings suggest that consideration of these second-ary traits during selection of maize germplasm for excessive moisture tolerance can improve selection efficiency and genetic gains.

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Studies on energetic compounds

IV. Thermal explosion of ring-substituted arylammonium perchlorates

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: G. Singh, I. P. S. Kapoor, and S. M. Mannan

Thermal and explosion characteristics of ring(mono) substituted arylammonium perchlorates (RSAP) are studied by DTA, impact and friction sensitivity measurements. Exothermic decomposition temperature (T d) from DTA curves and impact sensitivity data (h 50%) were found to be linearly related to the Hammett substituent constant (σ+) andpK a values of the corresponding arylamines. A reaction scheme, based on the formation of reaction intermediates during decomposition and explosion, accounting for the products, is proposed which, involves proton transfer as the rate determining process and evolution of ammonia. It seems that oxidation-reduction reactions between the arylamine/substituted benzene and HClO4 or its decomposition products cause explosion.

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Genotype by environment interaction distorts genetic analysis, changes relative ranking of genotypes and a major obstruction for varietal release. AMMI model is a quick and relevant tool to judge environmental behaviour and genotypic stability in comparison to ANOVA, multiplicative model and linear regressions. We evaluated 19 barley genotypes grown at 08 diverse locations to identify discriminating environments and ideal genotypes with dynamic stability. In AMMI ANOVA, the locations and genotype by environment interaction exhibited 66% and 14.7% of the total variation. The initial first two principal components showed significant interaction with 36.0 and 28.4% variation, respectively. AMMI1 biplot showed that the environments Bawal, Ludhiana and Durgapura were high yielding with high IPCA1 scores and located far away from the biplot origin. However, in AMMI1and AMMI2 biplots the locations Hisar, Ludhiana, Karnal, Bathinda and Modipuram were found suitable with low IPCA2 scores. Yield stability index (YSI) was highly useful with ASV ranks and the genotypes DWRB150 and BH1013 and checks BH902, DWRUB52 and DWRB101 were selected for high grain yield and wider adaptability across the locations.

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The thermal behaviours of polystyrene (PS), polymethylacrylate (PMA), polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polystyrene-co-methylacrylate [P(S: MA)](alternate and random), polystyrene-co-acrylonitrile [P(S: AN)] (alternate) and a terpolymer of styrene, methylacrylate and acrylonitrile [P(S: MA: AN)] are discussed on the basis of non-isothermal thermogravimetric studies. The thermal stabilities of the copolymers have been found to be intermediate between of those of the individual homopolymers. The stability of the [P(S: AN)] copolymer is higher than those of the individual homopolymers. The activation energy values are also in accordance with the thermal behaviours of these polymers.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: G. Choppin, J. Mathur, D. Singh, M. Mallekav, and P. Thakur
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