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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: Yu. Barbanel', G. Chudnovskaya, Yu. Gavrish, R. Dushin, V. Kolin, and V. Kotlin

Abstract  

Absorption, luminescence and self-luminescence spectra of transuranium elements (Np3+, Am3+, Cm3+) doped into Cs2NaLnCl6 (Ln=La, Lu) crystals are presented. In the case of Am3+ an attempt has been made to investigate luminescence excitation mechanisms. One of the luminescence features characteristic of the Am- and Cm-doped elpasolites appears to be dominante green glow. The octahedral ligand-field calculations were performed by the pair interaction method. The main properties of f-f transition spectra in crystals of elpasolite type are discussed.

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Abstract  

The core samples of oil- and bitumen-containing rocks from Tatarstan's deposits of different ages were studied by thermal analysis methods (DTA, TG, DTG). Based on the obtained data, a procedure was elaborated for determining the enclosed organic matter content and the index of its fraction composition. A significant increase of the organic matter content in the core and its enrichment in high-molecular aromatic structures were shown to occur for the oil-containing rock samples when passing from the Devonian to Carboniferous and Permian deposits. The core samples of the Devonian oil-containing rocks may be divided into three groups: the samples taken from the zones where waste water flooding has been started relatively recently (1), or fresh water flooding has been carried on for a long time (2) and the samples of rock containing clay minerals as impurities. Thus, thermal analysis can be used in geochemical studies to identify the organic matter enclosed by oil- and bitumen-containing rocks.

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Chinese endemic wheat landraces possess unique morphological features and desirable traits, useful for wheat breeding. It is important to clarify the relationship among these landraces. In this study, 21 accessions of the four Chinese endemic wheat landrace species were investigated using single-copy genes encoding plastid Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Acc-1) and 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (Pgk-1) in order to estimate their phylogenetic relationship. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian, and TCS network and gene flow values. The A and B genome sequences from the Pgk-1 loci indicated that three accessions of Triticum petropavlovskyi were clustered into the same subclade, and the T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum and the Sichuan white wheat accessions were grouped into a separate subclade. Based on the Acc-1 gene, T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum and T. aestivum ssp. yunnanense were grouped into one subclade in the A genome; the B genome from T. petropavlovskyi and T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum, and the Sichuan white wheat complex and T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum were grouped in the same clades. The D genome of T. aestivum ssp. yunnanense clustered with T. petropavlovskyi. Our findings suggested that (1) T. petropavlovskyi is distantly related to the Sichuan white wheat complex; (2) T. petropavlovskyi, T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum and T. aestivum ssp. yunnanense are closely related; (3) T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum is closely related to T. aestivum ssp. yunnanense and the Sichuan white wheat complex; and (4) T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum may be an ancestor of Chinese endemic wheat landraces.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: H. Yu, Y. Yang, X.Y. Chen, G.X. Lin, J.Y. Sheng, J.Y. Nie, Q.J. Wang, E.J. Zhang, X.R. Yu, Z. Wang, and F. Xiong

The waxy wheat shows special starch quality due to high amylopectin content. However, little information is available concerning the development and degradation of amyloplast from waxy wheat endosperm. To address this problem, waxy wheat variety, Yangnuo 1, and a non-waxy wheat variety, Yangmai 13, were chosen to investigate the development and degradation of endosperm amyloplast during wheat caryopsis development and germination stage respectively using histochemical staining and light microscopy. Changes of morphology, the soluble sugar and total starch content were indistinguishable in the process of caryopsis development of two wheat varieties. The developing endosperm of non-waxy was stained blue-black by I2-KI while the endosperm of waxy wheat was stained reddish-brown, but the pericarp of waxy and non-waxy wheat was stained blue-black. In contrast to nonwaxy wheat, endosperm amyloplast of waxy wheat had better development status and higher proportion of small amyloplast. During seed germination many small dissolution pores appeared on the surface of endosperm amyloplast and the pores became bigger and deeper until amyloplast disintegrated. The rate of degradation of waxy wheat endosperm amyloplast was faster than non-waxy wheat. Our results may also be helpful to the use of waxy starch in food and nonfood industry.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: T. Mamedov, I. Chaplygin, V. Roganov, V. Firsov, O. Ilyukhina, V. Kudinov, E. Minaychev, Yu. Obukhov, G. Savelev, V. Evseev, V. Gordeev, R. Konopleva, L. Gordienko, and V. Khadji

Abstract  

SR-method has been used for studying reactions of muonium as an analogue of a light hydrogen isotope with impurity atoms and point-like defects. The relaxation rate of muonium polarization Mu was measured for 11 samples with different concentrations of impurity atoms and defects. The rate constants of reactions of muonium with Fe, Al, Li, Ba, Cu, Mn, Ti and Pb atoms in quartz were defined.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: D. Schumann, R. Dressler, St. Taut, H. Nitsche, Z. Szeglowski, B. Kubica, L. Guseva, G. Tikhomirova, A. Yakushev, O. Constantinescu, V. Domanov, M. Constantinescu, Dinh Lien, Yu. Oganessian, V. Brudanin, I. Zvara, and H. Bruchertseifer

Abstract  

The title goal was achieved using a DOWEX 50Wx8 cation exchange column saturated with La(OH)3 and ammonia solution as eluent. Hf, Ta and Lu were adsorbed on this column, whereas W remained in the solution. This chemical system may be used for fast on-line separations of element 106.

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