The now-famous equation, “knowledge is power” (“scientia potestas est”), was coined by Francis Bacon in 1597. Since then it
has been rephrased in a wide variety of contexts from Thomas Hobbes to Michel Foucault. In recent years, this elusive topos
has in fact proved essential to the poststructuralist critique of the humanist subject. Acknowledging the impossibility of
doing justice, in this essay, to the complexities of Bacon’s and the poststructuralists’ respective articulations of knowledge
and power, I will focus primarily on a selection of significant aphorisms that encapsulate Bacon’s main ideas on science and
the state. In the second half of the essay I also assess Michel Foucault’s immensely influential “knowledge/power” (“pouvoir/savoir”)
binomial. Both Bacon’s and Foucault’s ideas will be filtered through Pierre Bourdieu’s restatement of hierarchically organized
structures of knowledge and power. In the last few pages I bring into my discussion Foucault’s later writings on ethics and
disciplinarity – the so-called “final Foucault” or “1980s Foucault” – which allow the self both a greater degree of freedom
and larger room for maneuver in organizing its resistance to the coercion of dominant powers. Whereas Foucault moves from
his earlier suspicion of public forms of learning and their attending institutions (e.g., existing hierarchies, discursive
conventions) to an instrumental appropriation by the self of that learning for the purposes of self-cultivation, both Bacon
and Bourdieu seem to agree that power and knowledge are most clearly seen in the creation and self-reproduction of a professional
class of experts in science and communication whose main interest is to keep control over official institutions of learning.
This study focuses on the use of popular information and communication technologies (ICTs) by adolescents: the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. The relationship of ICT use and experiential avoidance (EA), a construct that has emerged as underlying and transdiagnostic to a wide variety of psychological problems, including behavioral addictions, is examined. EA refers to a self-regulatory strategy involving efforts to control or escape from negative stimuli such as thoughts, feelings, or sensations that generate strong distress. This strategy, which may be adaptive in the short term, is problematic if it becomes an inflexible pattern. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether EA patterns were associated with addictive or problematic use of ICT in adolescents.
A total of 317 students of the Spanish southeast between 12 and 18 years old were recruited to complete a questionnaire that included questions about general use of each ICTs, an experiential avoidance questionnaire, a brief inventory of the Big Five personality traits, and specific questionnaires on problematic use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games.
Correlation analysis and linear regression showed that EA largely explained results regarding the addictive use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games, but not in the same way. As regards gender, boys showed a more problematic use of video games than girls. Concerning personality factors, conscientiousness was related to all addictive behaviors.
Discussion and conclusions
We conclude that EA is an important construct that should be considered in future models that attempt to explain addictive behaviors.
Authors:Lestár Béla, Polányi Csaba, Bihari László, Garcia Jose and Vörös Attila
Vannak olyan széklet-visszatartási és -kiürítési zavarok, melyek sem konzervatív, sem sebészi úton nem kezelhetők eredményesen. Ezen esetekben a beteg panaszait a vastagbél rendszeres beöntéseivel csökkenteni lehet, pseudocontinentiát lehet kialakítani. A szerzők közleményükben a colon kiürítésének egy hatékony módját mutatják be. A módszert először Malone alkalmazta 1990-ben. Az eljárás lényege, hogy az appendicostomán, illetve appendix hiánya esetén a coecumfalból kialakított neoappendicostomán keresztül anterograd bélátmosást alkalmaznak. A betegek a vékony katéter számára átjárható stomán keresztül 300–450 ml vizet fecskendeznek a bélbe, majd a folyadék beadása után rövid idővel székletet ürítenek. A módszert 12 betegen, 5 nőn és 7 férfin alkalmazták (átlagéletkor: 39 év). A beavatkozást a következő okok miatt végezték: 3 betegnél a gátizomzat denervatiója, három esetben az anus fejlődési zavara, két esetben analis trauma miatt teljes székletincontinentia alakult ki; 3 betegnél a gát beidegzési zavara incontinentia és obstipatio keveredését okozta; 2 betegnél kezelhetetlen obstipatio, illetve overflow incontinentia volt a panasz. A folyadék beadása után a székürítés minden esetben megindult, azonban a funkcionális eredmények változóak voltak. A 12 beteg közül 8 beteg elégedett volt az eredménnyel, 2 beteg javulásról számolt be, 1 esetben az eredmény rossz volt. Egy másik esetben pedig sebészi szövődmény miatt az appendicostomát nem lehetett használni. A szerzők a (neo)appendicostoma mérsékelt beszűkülését 2 esetben tapasztalták. Számottevő visszacsorgás csak 1 esetben jelentkezett. Összesítve, a módszert megfelelő betegkiválasztás után sikerrel lehet alkalmazni.
Authors:Jesús Rey-Rocha, Belén Garzón-García and M. José Martín-Sempere
The aim of this paper is to explore to what extent social integration influences scientists’ research activity and performance.
Data were obtained from a survey of researchers ascribed to the Biology and Biomedicine area of the Spanish Council for Scientific
Research, as well as from their curricula vitae. The results provide empirical evidence that researchers who were highly integrated
within their teams performed better than their less integrated colleagues in aspects of research activity such as collaboration
with the private sector, patenting, participation in domestic funded research and development projects, and supervision of
doctoral dissertations. Nevertheless, highly integrated researchers did not seem to be more prestigious than less integrated
colleagues, nor did the former’s publications have a higher impact.
Authors:Jesús Rey-Rocha, Belén Garzón-García and M. José Martín-Sempere
Empirical evidence is given on how membership in a consolidated, well-established research team provides researchers with
some competitive advantage as compared to their colleagues in non-consolidated teams. Data were obtained from a survey of
researchers ascribed to the 'Biology and Biomedicine' area of the Spanish Council for Scientific Research, as well as from
their curricula vitae. One quarter of the scientists work as members of teams in the process of consolidation. Our findings
illustrate the importance, for the development and consolidation of research teams, of the availability of a minimum number
of researchers with a permanent position and of a minimum number of support staff and non-staff personnel (mainly post-doctoral
fellows). Consolidation of research teams has a clear influence on the more academic-oriented quantitative indicators of the
scientific activity of individuals. Researchers belonging to consolidated teams perform quantitatively better than their colleagues
in terms of the number of articles published in journals covered in the Journal Citation Reports, but not in terms of the impact of these publications. Consolidation favours publication, but not patenting, and it also
has a positive effect on the academic prestige of scientists and on their capacity to train new researchers. It does not significantly
foster participation in funded R&D projects, nor does it influence the establishment of international collaborations. Impact
is influenced to a remarkable degree by seniority and professional background, and is significantly greater for young scientists
who have spent time abroad at prestigious research laboratories.
Authors:Jose-Luis Godos-Diez, Roberto Fernández-Gago and Laura Cabeza-García
Using a sample of Spanish undergraduate students, this research contributes to stakeholder theory by developing empirical testing of normative stakeholder management orientation. It also offers empirical evidence on how the type of higher education received affects how individuals assess stakeholders’ interests. The results show that, in general, business students give less importance to the normative approach and consider it less necessary to take secondary stakeholders into account for a normative reason than their non-business counterparts do. Therefore, this study raises awareness on the influence of business education on individuals’ ethical decision-making process and suggests some possible changes for business teaching.
Authors:Maria Pinto, José Luis Alonso Berrocal, José Antonio Cordón García, Viviana Fernández Marcial, Carlos García Figuerola, Javier García Marco, Camarero Carmen Gómez and Rodríguez Ángel F. Zazo
Summary This work has analyzed and evaluated the dissemination of research done at Spanish universities through the World Wide Web (WWW) in order to obtain a map of the visibility of the information available on this research and to propose measures for improving the quality of this diffusion, all within the social and institutional context of the European Area for Higher Education. The methodology applied in the study has used both qualitative and quantitative research methods to obtain some quality indicators on the dissemination of university research. The object of study consists of a sample of 19 Spanish universities, chosen according to their representativeness by Autonomous Community and their administrative and scientific weight. The process of defining indicators, both qualitative and quantitative, as well as the collection and analysis of data, are explained. The results give us a detailed panorama of the state of the art of the visibility of information on research in the web pages of selected universities. This has allowed us to make certain proposals for improvement that can contribute to the excellence of its dissemination.
Authors:Joan Tutusaus, Fernando López-Gatius, Sonia Almería, Beatriz Serrano, Eva Monleón, Juan José Badiola and Irina García-Ispierto
Samples from 45 dams (milk/colostrum, faeces, vaginal fluid and blood on days 171–177 of gestation and at parturition, and cotyledons at parturition) and their calves (blood collected before colostrum intake and weekly until days 29–35) were analysed to examine the vertical transmission of Coxiella burnetii and links between shedding and seropositivity. All calves were born C. burnetii seronegative. Only those born to seropositive dams seroconverted following colostrum intake. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the likelihood of dam seropositivity was 21 and 4.85 times higher for multiparous than for primiparous (65.6% vs. 8.3%, P = 0.006) and for prepartum shedding cows (75% vs. 38.2%, P = 0.03) compared to the remaining animals, respectively. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate no detectable precolostral antibody response in calves born from dams with cotyledons positive for C. burnetii by qPCR. In order to analyse the possibility of persistent infection due to immunotolerance to an early in utero infection, further studies will need to test for C. burnetii DNA. In addition, in the present study multiparous cows showed a significantly higher seroprevalence than primiparous cows and heifers, colostral antibodies were efficiently transferred to newborn calves, and there was a link between bacterial shedding on days 171–177 of gestation and Coxiella seropositivity of the dam.
Authors:J. F. Fangueiro, A. S. Macedo, S. Jose, M. L. Garcia, S. B. Souto and E. B. Souto
This article reports the thermodynamic changes of lipid nanoparticles (LN) upon delivery of lipophilic vitamin E derivatives to the skin. Skin penetration of α-tocopherol (α-T) and α-tocopherol acetate (α-Ta) into and across porcine ear skin was investigated in vitro using tape-stripping test in modified Franz diffusion cells. Wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) have been used to characterize the polymorphism of the solid matrix of LN before and after in vitro skin penetration assay. Cetyl palmitate LN with a loading capacity of 20% of vitamin E derivatives (with regard to the lipid matrix) have shown the typical β’ modification of waxes, with a crystallinity index (%CI) between 30 and 40%. Mean particle size and shelf life stability was assessed by static (laser diffractometry, LD) and dynamic (photon correlation spectroscopy, PCS) light scattering techniques. Submicron-sized LN were produced, i.e., 99% of LN showed a size below 600 nm immediately after production. A mean size between 180 and 350 nm (polydispersity index < 0.25) was obtained for LN stored at both 8 and 22 °C, and this size range was kept constant for at least 20 days of shelf life. Quantification of α-T and α-Ta in the skin using tape-stripping provided a 3.4-fold increase in the level of actives within the stratum corneum (SC) and 1.3-fold increase in the viable epidermis (VE). LN increased skin penetration of both actives, following a cumulative release during 8 h in modified Franz diffusion cells. The differences in the distribution levels observed between α-T and α-Ta when delivered via LN was due to the different thermodynamic activity of both actives, i.e., following increased partition coefficient of α-Ta into SC and VE, in comparison to α-T.