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This study aimed to clarify the influence of extra-pharmacological factors in the etiology of bad trips, a common adverse reaction related to the consumption of psychedelic drugs.


A descriptive approach was adopted. The information was collected using a web-based survey. The survey respondents volunteered to participate based on the condition that they had suffered a bad trip in the past.


This report reveals some variables that are commonly related to this adverse reaction (i.e., the recreational consumption of drugs, the consumption of drugs in large, open outdoor spaces, or being inexperienced with the drug). In addition, we note that some problems, which may be related to bad trips (i.e., mixing drugs, ignorance about the purity, or the dosage), can be solved through harm-reduction strategies.


We found certain aspects that could be related to the appearance of a bad trip, but it is not possible to establish a causal connection. We recommend conducting prospective studies with larger samples to collect more information about the role of extra-pharmacological factors.

Open access

Background and aims

Pain is the most prevalent symptom of a health condition, and it is inappropriately treated in many cases. Here, we present a case report in which we observe a long-lasting analgesic effect produced by changa, a psychedelic drug that contains the psychoactive N,N-dimethyltryptamine and ground seeds of Peganum harmala, which are rich in β-carbolines.


We describe the case and offer a brief review of supportive findings.


A long-lasting analgesic effect after the use of changa was reported. Possible analgesic mechanisms are discussed. We suggest that both pharmacological and non-pharmacological factors could be involved.


These findings offer preliminary evidence of the analgesic effect of changa, but due to its complex pharmacological actions, involving many neurotransmitter systems, further research is needed in order to establish the specific mechanisms at work.

Open access