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  • Author or Editor: Gergely Surányi x
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In the capital of Hungary, Budapest, which Ottokar Kadic`´ called 'the capital of the caves', beneath the Rózsadomb (Rose Hill) district of the city, many thermal-karstic caves were discovered based on the lucky coincidence of geologic-hydrologic-speleological fundamentals. At present more than a hundred caves and cave indications are known in this 5-6 km2 area. The hills are made up of Triassic and Eocene carbonate sequences. Five caves are km-size. The corridors are sometimes longer than 100 m, and their walls are often adorned by spherical niches. The total length of the caves exceeds 35 km at present. The galleries of these caves are situated in the Eocene Szépvölgy Limestone. Some galleries and most of the cave indications can be found in the Eocene Buda Marl. The lowest galleries of some caves extend into the Triassic carbonate sequences. Although many paleokarstic cavities and caverns exist in the area the age of the largest caves - according to the preliminary results of investigations still in progress - is some hundreds of thousands of years only, based on the radiometric age of the syngenetic minerals. The exceptional value of the caves are the more than dozen species of minerals (especially the variety and mass of carbonates and sulfates are surprising). Minerals precipitated from warm water, minerals of aerosol formation, as well as recent, still developing minerals of cold water origin can also be found. The caves can be regarded as the fossil source levels of the present-day thermal springs at the banks of the Danube. Their genesis is interpreted as a result of mixing corrosion along tectonic fractures at the level of karst water.

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