This paper offers a functional, comparative view of a relatively neglected emotion: pride and shame. Parallels between the nonverbal expression of pride and shame in humans, on the one hand, and of dominance and submission in other species on the other, have long been noted. However, many other parallels exist between competitive behavior in humans (prompted by the affect of pride and shame) and dominance behavior in other primates. These additional parallels strengthen the claim that human competitive behavior evolved from primate dominance behavior. This expanded dominance model of human competitive behavior also might allow various aspects of our social behavior to be understood functionally and comparatively. That is, a fuller application of the dominance model of human competitive behavior, which is motivated by pride and shame, might elucidate many facts about human social behavior that otherwise remain theoretically unmoored. Possible future directions for research into this emotion complex are discussed. Much remains to be learned about the expressions, affect, development, eliciting circumstances, neural and physiological correlates, and individual, pathological, and cultural variations of this emotion.
In this post hoc analysis of mate retention behavior, over 3000 married couples from five cultures completed the Marriage and Relationship Questionnaire (MARQ). The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) was used to test relationships for selected variables. For all countries and both sexes, the spouse being attracted to other people was linked to worry about spousal infidelity. For all cases except the Russians, being attracted to one’s spouse was related to less worry by the spouse about infidelity. In all cases, one’s being attractive was associated with spousal feelings of possessiveness. Having a spouse who went out without them was related to infidelity worries for wives in all groups and husbands in three groups. Feelings of possessiveness were related to wanting to touch the spouse in most groups, and husbands reported more such desire in all groups. Husbands who sought sex outside of marriage worried about reciprocal spousal infidelity in all cultures, as did wives in most cultures. Overall, the data suggest that attractiveness and attraction shape mate retention emotions and behavior in similar ways across cultures.