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Abstract

Cervical cancer (CC) is the third leading cause of death in women in Montenegro. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of CC however, HPV genotype distribution varies across regions. This study examined the distribution and impact of vaccine-related high-risk (HR)-HPVs on the development of cervical dysplasia in Montenegrin women. A total of 187 women who had a clinical indication for cervical biopsy were enrolled. Based on histopathological findings, women were classified into 2 groups, with and without dysplasia. HR-HPV was detected by real-time PCR. Twelve HR-HPV genotypes were detected in 40.6% of cervical samples. The 7 most prevalent HR-HPVs in order of decreasing frequency were HPV 16 (39.5%), 45 (23.7%), 31 (21.0%), 33 (17.1%), 18 (6.6%), 52 (6.6%), and 58 (6.6%), all of them are targeted by nonavalent vaccine. Vaccine-related HR-HPVs had a higher prevalence (92.1%) than the other HR-HPVs detected in HR-HPV–positive samples. Among HR-HPV–positive women, HPV 16 and 33 were more common in women with dysplasia than in those without dysplasia (HPV 16: 28.9 vs 7.2%; HPV 33: 11.8 vs 3.6%). HPV 16 was the most common HR-HPV genotype in cervical samples, followed by HPV 45, 31, 33, 18, 52, and 58. HPV 16 and 33 were shown to be associated with the development of cervical dysplasia. These results indicate that prophylactic nonavalent vaccine can potentially prevent approximately 90% of HR-HPV infections and 60% of cervical dysplasia cases in Montenegrin women.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Ina Gajic, Lazar Ranin, Dusan Kekic, Natasa Opavski, Aleksandra Smitran, Vera Mijac, Snezana Jovanovic, Mirjana Hadnadjev, Maja Travar, and Gordana Mijovic

Abstract

Tigecycline can be effective to treat infections of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) however, no interpretive criteria have been approved so far. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the proportion of CRAB isolates and to compare gradient test with a broth microdilution (BMD) method for tigecycline susceptibility testing of A. baumannii.

This study included 349 multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter spp. collected from Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2016 and 2017. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion, VITEK2, gradient, ComASP Colistin. Tigecycline susceptibilities were interpreted according to breakpoints of European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Majority of the tested isolates were CRAB (92.8%). Tigecycline MIC50/MIC90 values were 4/8 μg/mL by BMD and 0.5/4 μg/mL by gradient test. Essential agreement for BMD and gradient test amounted to 65.1%. With EUCAST breakpoints, categorical agreement (CA) was achieved in 38% isolates. Major discordance (MD-false susceptibility/resistance) and minor discordance (mD-false categorization involving intermediate results) were observed in 10% and 57% A. baumannii, respectively. With FDA breakpoints, CA, MD and mD were observed in 44%, 16% and 47% isolates, respectively. Colistin resistance was 2.1%.

The study highlights a high proportion of CRAB and several discordances between BMD and gradient test which may lead to inappropriate therapy.

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