Authors:Greta Gölz, Thomas Alter, Stefan Bereswill, and Markus M. Heimesaat
We have previously shown that Arcobacter butzleri infection induces Toll-like receptor (TLR) -4 dependent immune responses in perorally infected gnotobiotic IL-10−/− mice. Here, we analyzed TLR-4-dependent expression of genes encoding inflammatory mediators and matrix-degrading gelatinases MMP-2 and -9 in the small and large intestines of gnotobiotic TLR-4-deficient IL-10−/− mice that were perorally infected with A. butzleri strains CCUG 30485 or C1, of human and chicken origin, respectively. At day 6 following A. butzleri infection, colonic mucin-2 mRNA, as integral part of the intestinal mucus layer, was downregulated in the colon, but not ileum, of IL-10−/− but not TLR-4−/− IL-10−/− mice. CCUG 30485 strain-infected TLR-4-deficient IL-10−/− mice displayed less distinctly upregulated IFN-γ, IL-17A, and IL-1β mRNA levels in ileum and colon, which was also true for colonic IL-22. These changes were accompanied by upregulated colonic MMP-2 and ileal MMP-9 mRNA exclusively in IL-10−/− mice. In conclusion, TLR-4 is essentially involved in A. butzleri mediated modulation of gene expression in the intestines of gnotobiotic IL-10−/− mice.
Authors:Markus M. Heimesaat, Thomas Alter, Stefan Bereswill, and Greta Gölz
We have previously shown that Arcobacter butzleri induces intestinal, extra-intestinal, and systemic immune responses in perorally infected gnotobiotic IL-10−/− mice in a strain-dependent fashion. Here, we present a comprehensive survey of small and large intestinal expression profiles of inflammatory and regulatory mediators as well as of the matrix-degrading gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 following murine A. butzleri infection. Gnotobiotic IL-10−/− mice were infected with A. butzleri strains CCUG 30485 or C1 of human and chicken origin, respectively. At day 6 following A. butzleri infection, mucin-2 mRNA, an integral part of the intestinal mucus layer, was downregulated in the colon, whereas TNF and IL-23p19 mRNA were upregulated in the ileum. Furthermore, IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL-1β, and IL-22 mRNA were upregulated in both colonic and ileal ex vivo biopsies at day 6 post strain CCUG 30485 infection. These changes were accompanied by downregulated colonic MMP-9 levels, whereas both MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA were upregulated in the ileum. In conclusion, these data indicate that A. butzleri infection induces changes in the expression of genes involved in pro-inflammatory and regulatory immune responses as well as in tissue degradation.
Authors:Greta Gölz, S. Sharbati, S. Backert, and T. Alter
Quorum sensing comprises the mechanism of communication between numerous bacteria via small signalling molecules, termed autoinducers (AI). Using quorum sensing, bacteria can regulate the expression of multiple genes involved in virulence, toxin production, motility, chemotaxis and biofilm formation, thus contributing to adaptation as well as colonisation. The current understanding of the role of quorum sensing in the lifecycle of Campylobacterales is still incomplete. Campylobacterales belong to the class of Epsilonproteobacteria representing a physiologically and ecologically diverse group of bacteria that are rather distinct from the more commonly studied Proteobacteria, such as Escherichia and Salmonella. This review summarises the recent knowledge on distribution and production of AI molecules, as well as possible quorum sensing dependent regulation in the mostly investigated species within the Campylobacterales group: Campylobacter jejuni and Helicobacter pylori.
Authors:Markus M. Heimesaat, Gül Karadas, André Fischer, Ulf B. Göbel, Thomas Alter, Stefan Bereswill, and Greta Gölz
Sporadic cases of gastroenteritis have been attributed to Arcobacter butzleri infection, but information about the underlying immunopathological mechanisms is scarce. We have recently shown that experimental A. butzleri infection induces intestinal, extraintestinal and systemic immune responses in gnotobiotic IL-10−/− mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the immunopathological role of Toll-like Receptor-4, the receptor for lipopolysaccharide and lipooligosaccharide of Gram-negative bacteria, during murine A. butzleri infection. To address this, gnotobiotic IL-10−/− mice lacking TLR-4 were generated by broadspectrum antibiotic treatment and perorally infected with two different A. butzleri strains isolated from a patient (CCUG 30485) or fresh chicken meat (C1), respectively. Bacteria of either strain stably colonized the ilea of mice irrespective of their genotype at days 6 and 16 postinfection. As compared to IL-10−/− control animals, TLR-4−/− IL-10−/− mice were protected from A. butzleri-induced ileal apoptosis, from ileal influx of adaptive immune cells including T lymphocytes, regulatory T-cells and B lymphocytes, and from increased ileal IFN-γ secretion. Given that TLR-4-signaling is essential for A. butzleri-induced intestinal inflammation, we conclude that bacterial lipooligosaccharide or lipopolysaccharide compounds aggravate intestinal inflammation and may thus represent major virulence factors of Arcobacter. Future studies need to further unravel the molecular mechanisms of TLR-4-mediated A. butzleri-host interactions.
Authors:Greta Gölz, Gül Karadas, André Fischer, Ulf B. Göbel, Thomas Alter, Stefan Bereswill, and Markus M. Heimesaat
Arcobacter butzleri causes sporadic cases of gastroenteritis, but the underlying immunopathological mechanisms of infection are unknown. We have recently demonstrated that A. butzleri-infected gnotobiotic IL-10−/− mice were clinically unaffected but exhibited intestinal and systemic inflammatory immune responses. For the first time, we here investigated the role of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, the main receptor for lipopolysaccharide and lipooligosaccharide of Gram-negative bacteria, in murine arcobacteriosis. Gnotobiotic TLR-4/IL-10-double deficient (TLR-4−/− IL-10−/−) and IL-10−/− control mice generated by broad-spectrum antibiotics were perorally infected with A. butzleri. Until day 16 postinfection, mice of either genotype were stably colonized with the pathogen, but fecal bacterial loads were approximately 0.5–2.0 log lower in TLR-4−/− IL-10−/− as compared to IL-10−/− mice. A. butzleri-infected TLR-4−/− IL-10−/− mice displayed less pronounced colonic apoptosis accompanied by lower numbers of macrophages and monocytes, T lymphocytes, regulatory T-cells, and B lymphocytes within the colonic mucosa and lamina propria as compared to IL-10−/− mice. Furthermore, colonic concentrations of nitric oxide, TNF, IL-6, MCP-1, and, remarkably, IFN-γ and IL-12p70 serum levels were lower in A. butzleri-infected TLR-4−/− IL-10−/− versus IL-10−/− mice. In conclusion, TLR-4 is involved in mediating murine A. butzleri infection. Further studies are needed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying Arcobacter—host interactions in more detail.
Authors:Jennifer zur Bruegge, Christina Backes, Greta Gölz, Georg Hemmrich-Stanisak, Lydia Scharek-Tedin, Andre Franke, Thomas Alter, Ralf Einspanier, Andreas Keller, and Soroush Sharbati
The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in infectious diseases is becoming more and more apparent, and the use of miRNAs as a diagnostic tool and their therapeutic application has become the major focus of investigation. The aim of this study was to identify miRNAs involved in the immune signaling of macrophages in response to Arcobacter (A.) butzleri infection, an emerging foodborne pathogen causing gastroenteritis. Therefore, primary human macrophages were isolated and infected, and miRNA expression was studied by means of RNAseq. Analysis of the data revealed the expression of several miRNAs, which were previously associated with bacterial infections such as miR-155, miR-125, and miR-212. They were shown to play a key role in Toll-like receptor signaling where they act as fine-tuners to establish a balanced immune response. In addition, miRNAs which have yet not been identified during bacterial infections such as miR-3613, miR-2116, miR-671, miR-30d, and miR-629 were differentially regulated in A. butzleri-infected cells. Targets of these miRNAs accumulated in pathways such as apoptosis and endocytosis — processes that might be involved in A. butzleri pathogenesis. Our study contributes new findings about the interaction of A. butzleri with human innate immune cells helping to understand underlying regulatory mechanisms in macrophages during infection.