According to the legal norms in China, judges are not allowed to deviate from the sentencing model of deductive legal reasoning and syllogism, and thus, they cannot make law. The inherent limitations of this model figure in the reasoning of judges, such as the poor interpretation of the abstract terms of laws and regulations, the difficulties of identifying legally relevant facts and the simplicity of the reasoning process, which lacks legal rationality. While they are subject to the conditions of the legal system, some external and internal factors influence the judges’ reasoning behind their decisions concerning the determination of sentences. The internal factors include the knowledge, judicial experience, special experiences, and attitude of the judge; the external factors refer to the circumstances of the victim, the personality of the offender, the intervention of external power, and the opinion of the public. All of these factors are parts of the dilemma of sentencing justly. Only if the formal and substantive levels of justice are compatible with each other can the justice of sentencing be realized. Finally, this paper would like to put forward some suggestions to deal with the dilemma of sentencing justly, such as improving the quality of sentencing system, standardizing the judges’ sentencing skills, improving the criteria of the judges’ appointment, and constructing an effective communication channel between the judges and society.
To understand the genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in South China, we collected 231 clinical samples from pigs with suspected PRRSV infection in Guangdong between 2007 and 2009. We found that 74 of 231 samples were positive by RT-PCR. The PCR products of the ORF5 gene of 35 isolates from different farms were sequenced and their DNA sequences were compared to 23 other PRRSV isolates in the GenBank. We found that the nucleotide similarity among all South China isolates ranged from 87.6% to 100%, and all belonged to the North American genotype. Most of them were classified into subgenotype I, but the rest mapped to subgenotypes III, V or VI. Those in subgenotypes I and III were found to be highly variable in the primary neutralising epitope (PNE) with a specific amino acid mutation (F39/L39→I39), and a few isolates in subgenotypes I and III isolates also had a mutation at L41 (L41→S41). PRRSV isolates in subgenotypes III, V and VI had less potential glycosylation sites than those in subgenotype I. Our data contribute to the understanding of molecular variation of PRRSV in South China.
Twenty different brands of Chinese tea were analyzed for multiple trace elements, including some essential and toxic elements,
by neutron activation analysis (NAA). A comparison among tea brands from China, India, US and other countries was made for
the ranges and averages of concentrations for Na, K, Mn, Cu, and Br. It has been observed that the trace element contents
in tea leaves are largely dependent upon the soil and the environment where the tea grows. Chinese tea is rich in Mn and Cu
comparing with those of other counties surveyed, but is indigent in Na. The transference ratio for each element determined
(i.e., the fraction of an element in tea leave transferred into solution when tea is leached by percolation) is also reported.
Adult daily intakes of some essential and toxic elements from tea drinking were also estimated.
An expression of γ-ray efficiency for large samples is proposed based on numerical integration of efficiencies over compositional
point sources. The widely used expression on radial variation of HPGe efficiency for point source originally proposed by Noguchi
et al. (Int J Appl Radiat Isot 32:17–22, 1980 [<cite>1</cite>]) was amended and a new expression was proposed. A comparison between the two expressions indicates that the newly proposed
expression brings about an obvious improvement, and Self-absorption correction for a voluminous source is also given out by
using the EID principle. The functional relationship between HPGe efficiency for γ-rays from a point source and the spatial
position of the source was established. The results of this study can be applied in order to determine γ attenuation effects
of unknown bulky samples with various shapes and materials.