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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: Huang Donghui, Wang Pingsheng, Chen Xilin, Tian Weizhi, Ni Bangfa, Zhang Lanzhi, Zhang Guiying, Liu Cunxiong, and Liu Likun

Summary  

The half-life of 97Zr, used for the calculation of thermal/epithermal neutron flux ratio in k 0-NAA, is re-determined using three measurement systems with different pulse processing principles. The result of 16.755±0.013 hours clarifies the discrepancy between two widely used literature values, 16.744±0.011 and 16.90±0.05 hours. Different dead-time correction methods used on various measurement systems are evaluated. Factors influencing precise measurement of relative peak counting rates are discussed in time-series measurements over a dynamic range of 1000-fold radioactive intensities (10 half-lives).

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: Bangfa Ni, Caijing Xiao, Donghui Huang, Hongchao Sun, Guiying Zhang, Cunxiong Liu, Pingsheng Wang, Haiqing Zhang, and Weizhi Tian

Abstract  

China Advance Research Reactor (CARR) at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), with a non-perturbed maximum thermal neutron flux of 1 × 1015 cm−2 s−1 at the center of active area, is one of the most powerful research reactors in the world. Three neutron channels have been allocated for conventional neutron activation analysis (NAA), thermal neutron prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and cold neutron PGAA, respectively. Two irradiation tube systems are installed in the conventional NAA channel. One of them is for short irradiation with the rabbit size of diameter (Φ)19 × 40 mm, the other one is for long irradiation with the rabbit size of Φ39 × 70 mm. The medium temperature is about 45 °C and the thermal neutron flux is about 3 × 1014 cm−2 s−1 at sample positions. The flux gradient is expected to be very small according to the designed neutron flux distribution. Pneumatic systems are used for samples transfer. The speed of rabbits is designed to be about 20 m/s, and it takes 3 s to travel from irradiation position to detector. Three sets of gamma counting systems and one delayed neutron counting system are being equipped for routine analysis. They are designed for running continuously and automatically. And all the functions can be operated at laboratory or office through remote controlled computer. Software has been made domestically for spectrum peak search, concentration calculation with relative method and k0 method with interference corrections and some other functions for the convenience of users.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: Huang Donghui, Sun Hongchao, Ni Bangfa, Tian Weizhi, Zhang Yuanxun, Wang Pingsheng, Liu CunXiong, Zhang Guiying, Xiao Caijin, Zhang Haiqing, and Zhao Changjun

Abstract  

Sampling behavior of multielements for NIST SRM 2703, a marine sediment, was studied with sample sizes from 1 mg down to ng level by a combination of INAA, PIXE and SRXRF. On 1 mg sample size level, sampling behavior for multielements in NIST SRM 2703 and its parent SRM 2702 were comparatively characterized by using INAA combining with Ingamells model. Results showed that sampling uncertainties for 12 elements of both materials were found to be better than 1%, and those of four other elements in SRM 2703 better than in SRM 2702. At sample sizes not able to be accurately weighed (<1 mg), PIXE and SRXRF were used and the effective sample sizes estimated. Sampling uncertainties for nine elements were found to be better than 1% at sample sizes of tenth mg level, and those for six elements better than 10% on ng levels.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: Donghui Huang, Caijin Xiao, Bangfa Ni, Weizhi Tian, Yuanxun Zhang, Pingsheng Wang, CunXiong Liu, Guiying Zhang, Hongchao Sun, Haiqing Zhang, and Changjun Zhao

Abstract  

Taking advantages of nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) with non-destruction, multielement capability, small and estimable uncertainties over a wide range of sample sizes, the sampling behavior of multielements for a home-made natural matrix material was studied with sample sizes ranging from several hundred mg down to tenths ng, namely nine orders of magnitude, by a combination of three NATs, neutron activation analysis (NAA), proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and synchrotron radiation X-ray flurescence (SR-XRF), in an effort to explore a procedure for the development of certified reference materials (CRMs) suitable for quality control of microanalysis. For accurately weighable sample sizes (>1 mg), sampling uncertainties for 13 elements were found to be less than 1% by INAA. For sample sizes unable to be accurately weighed (<1 mg), PIXE and SR-XRF were used, respectively. Sampling uncertainties were found to be less than 1% at sample sizes of tenth mg level for seven elements, and less than 10% on ng levels for three elements. Considering these three elements have satisfied homogeneity (sampling uncertainty less than 10%) at ng sample size level, any one of them can be served as a “relative balance” in sampling behavior characterization of multielements on sample size levels larger than ng (e.g., μg level). On this basis, sampling uncertainties for nine elements were found to be less than 10% on μg sample size level by INAA. The results indicate that the matrix is eligible as a candidate of CRMs suitable for quality control of solid sampling microanalysis.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: Caijin Xiao, Guiying Zhang, Donghui Huang, Bangfa Ni, Cunxiong Liu, Yali Qin, Hongchao Sun, Pingsheng Wang, and Weizhi Tian

Abstract  

A total of 178 aerosol samples in two size fractions, PM10-2.5 (coarse) and PM2.5 (fine), were collected on nucleopore films using a Gent stacked filter unit sampler at the Graduate School of China Nuclear Industrial Group during May 2007 to November of 2009. Black carbon was determined by a reflectometer. A total of 16 elements, Mg, Al, S, Si, P, Cl, Ca, K, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Pb, were determined by Particle Induced X-ray Emission. Mg, Al, Ca, K and Mn were also determined by Neutron Activation Analysis. Concentrations of all these elements were used to identify possible pollution sources and directions of the airborne particulate matter by means of softwares PMF and CPF. Some extraordinary events, such as sandstorms, firework and transboundary fire smoke were pinpointed by a combination of time series of multielement, relevant meteorological data and softwares Wind rose, Hysplit, and Google earth.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: Hai-Qing Zhang, Bang-Fa Ni, Wei-Zhi Tian, Gui-Ying Zhang, Dong-Hui Huang, Cun-Xiong Liu, Cai-Jin Xiao, Peng Nie, and Hong-Chao Sun

Abstract  

An expression of γ-ray efficiency for large samples is proposed based on numerical integration of efficiencies over compositional point sources. The widely used expression on radial variation of HPGe efficiency for point source originally proposed by Noguchi et al. (Int J Appl Radiat Isot 32:17–22, 1980 [<cite>1</cite>]) was amended and a new expression was proposed. A comparison between the two expressions indicates that the newly proposed expression brings about an obvious improvement, and Self-absorption correction for a voluminous source is also given out by using the EID principle. The functional relationship between HPGe efficiency for γ-rays from a point source and the spatial position of the source was established. The results of this study can be applied in order to determine γ attenuation effects of unknown bulky samples with various shapes and materials.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: Hai-Qing Zhang, Bang-Fa Ni, Wei-Zhi Tian, Gui-Ying Zhang, Dong-Hui Huang, Cun-Xiong Liu, Cai-Jin Xiao, Hong-Chao Sun, and Chang-Jun Zhao

Abstract  

Twenty different brands of Chinese tea were analyzed for multiple trace elements, including some essential and toxic elements, by neutron activation analysis (NAA). A comparison among tea brands from China, India, US and other countries was made for the ranges and averages of concentrations for Na, K, Mn, Cu, and Br. It has been observed that the trace element contents in tea leaves are largely dependent upon the soil and the environment where the tea grows. Chinese tea is rich in Mn and Cu comparing with those of other counties surveyed, but is indigent in Na. The transference ratio for each element determined (i.e., the fraction of an element in tea leave transferred into solution when tea is leached by percolation) is also reported. Adult daily intakes of some essential and toxic elements from tea drinking were also estimated.

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