A field experiment was conducted in China during winter season of 2001–2002 to study the response of time of nitrogen application on two cultivars (Xiumei 3 and 92-11) of barley. Apart from basal dose of 40 kg N/ha, 110 kg N/ha was applied at tillering (T
) or in two equal splits at tillering and boot stages (T
) or at boot stage (T
). Cultivar 92-11 attained significantly lower plant height at boot stage and number of spikes/plant but took significantly more number of days to heading, registered significantly more chlorophyll content in leaves at different growth stages, produced significantly more number of grains/spike, grain weight/spike, single grain weight, N concentration at boot stage and consequently produced significantly higher grain yield (3764 kg/ha) than cultivar Xiumei 3 (3201 kg/ha). Application of nitrogen at boot stage significantly reduced the plant height at both stages, dry matter accumulation, days taken to heading, leaf chlorophyll content at boot stage, grains per spike, grain weight per spike and individual grain weight but recorded significantly higher chlorophyll content in leaves at heading stage and higher N content as compared to its application at tillering. Split application of nitrogen at tillering and boot stages also recorded significantly better growth and yield attributes, N concentration and grain yield than its application at boot stage alone but was at par with nitrogen applied at tillering except grain weight per spike. Consequently application of nitrogen at tillering or its split application at tillering and boot stages produced statistically similar (4052 and 3816 kg/ha, respectively) but significantly higher grain yield than its application at boot stage (2500 kg/ha).
The effect of time of nitrogen application and position of kernels in spike on kernel weight, protein content, β-amylase activity and β-glucan content were examined in two cultivars of barley. Cultivar 92-11 produced significantly bold kernels and lower β-glucan content with slightly lower protein content and higher β-amylase activity than cultivar Xiumei 3. Time of nitrogen application significantly influenced the quality parameters studied. Application of 110 kg N/ha at tillering produced significantly higher kernel weight and significantly lower protein content as well as β-glucan content as compared to its application made at boot stage. β-Amylase activity was also lowest in case of nitrogen applied at tillering stage. There were significant differences between two cultivars for quality parameters when kernels were selected from different spike positions or where specific plant part was removed at heading. The highest 1000-kernel weight was recorded in 92-11 (52.5%) with removal of side tillers and in Xiumei 3 (42.2%) from the middle portion of spike; whereas for protein content, opposite trend was obtained. β-Amylase activity in both cultivars was the highest when middle portion of spike was removed. The lowest β-glucan contents in 92-11 and Xiumei 3 were registered with removal of flag leaf and in Xiumei 3 with the removal of middle portion of spike.
Authors:Jing-Guo Cao, Ping Gu, Jun Zhao, Dong Zhang, and Yue Deng
This study characterized the removal of strontium from an aqueous solution via co-precipitation followed by microfiltration
(CPMF) on a lab-scale. Sodium carbonate was used as the precipitating agent. Ferric chloride was added to a settler at a dosage
of 20 mg/L to improve strontium removal, and it was added to a membrane separator at a dosage of 10 mg/L to reduce membrane
fouling. The concentration of strontium in the raw water used in this study was about 5 mg/L. In two intermittent tests, where
dosages of sodium carbonate were 2000 mg/L and 1000 mg/L, the mean decontamination factors (DFs) were 237 and 158 and the
mean concentration factors (CFs) were 288 and 462, respectively. Although the mean DF value was lower when the sodium carbonate
dosage was 1000 mg/L instead of 2000 mg/L, the rate at which the specific flux (SF) of the membrane declined decreased as
the amount of the effluent treated increased. The problem of strontium release at the beginning of the operation was controlled
by a continuous test in which the dosage of sodium carbonate still was 1000 mg/L and the other parameters were the same as
in the other tests. The results showed that the mean DF and CF were 157 and 480, respectively.
The importance of angiogenesis in tumor growth and metastasis has led to develop new imaging tracers to understand angiogenic
vasculature. Based on the previous study, we further focused on the tumor molecular imaging application of the novel peptide
Arginine-Arginine-Leucine (Tyr-Cys-Gly-Gly-Arg-Arg-Leu-Gly-Gly-Cys, tRRL) in this study. The cytotoxicity of raioiodinated
tRRL (131I-tRRL) in HepG2 cells was assessed by tested cell viability using kit. tRRL was conjugated with fluorescein FITC to observe
its binding with tumor cells and human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) in vitro. Whole body SPECT imaging of varied tumors
xenograftes was performed after intravenous injection of 131I-tRRL for 24 h in BALB/c nude mice. Compared with negative control PBS, small peptide tRRL was of non-cytotoxicity. 131I-tRRL could lead to significant cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells when the radioactivity was greater than 370 kBq. In vitro binding
experiment and cellular uptake results revealed that tRRL could adhere to tumor cells besides tumor derived endothelial cells.
In vivo SPECT imaging, 131I-tRRL mainly accumulated in various tumor tissues, including melanoma, liver cancer and lung cancer bearing mice. In breast
cancer xenografte imaging, the tumor has no significant radionuclide accumulation at 24 h after injected of 131I-tRRL. Radioiodinated tRRL offers a noninvasive nuclear imaging method for functional molecular imaging of tumors, and may
be a promising candidate carrier for tumor targeted therapy.
Authors:Guan-Quan Wang, Ji Zhang, Shun-Zhong Luo, Na Wang, Hong-Yuan Wei, Wen-Jin Wang, Yu-Qing Yang, Guo-Ping Liu, and Xiao-Qi Yu
A new nitrido-188Re complex, 188ReN-NEMPTDD, was synthesized through a modified method in high yield. This complex was stable in vitro. The biodistribution
in normal mice showed that this ReN complex accumulated in the liver and was eliminated quickly from almost all organs. VX2
carcinoma was grown in the livers of rabbits. Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) was performed using 188ReN-NEMPTDD/lipiodol solution. The SPECT images showed that the lipiodol solution could be concentrated in the tumor for about
12 hours. These results indicated that 188ReN-NEMPTDD/lipiodol could be a potential radiopharmaceutical for liver cancer.