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  • Author or Editor: Gyöngyi Lukács x
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The separation of chromosome-size DNA molecules by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) has become a well-established technique in recent years. Although it has very wide-ranging applications, it made a real breakthrough for fungal genome analysis. Because of the small size of fungal chromosomes, their investigation was not possible earlier. Different PFGE approaches allowed the separation of DNA molecules larger than 10 megabase pairs in size, and electrophoretic karyotypes for numerous previously genetically uncharacterized fungal species could be established. This review discusses the applicability of these electrophoretic karyotypes for the investigation of genome structure, for strain identification and for species delimitation.

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A genomic library of Mucor circinelloides ATCC 1216b has been constructed in Lambda Fix II vector. The library has an average insert site of 10 kb and covers the genome 12 times. The M. circinelloides gene encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) was isolated from this library by hybridization of the recombinant phage clones with a gpd-specific gene probe generated by PCR reaction. The complete nucleotide sequence encodes a putative polypeptide chain of 339 amino acids interrupted by 3 introns. The predicted amino acid sequence of this gene shows a high degree of sequence similarity to the GPD proteins from other filamentous fungi. The promoter region, containing a consensus TATA and CAAT box and a 298 nucleotid long termination region were also determined.

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The in vitro antifungal activity of different statins and the combinations of the two most effective ones (fluvastatin and rosuvastatin) with amphotericin B were investigated in this study on 6 fungal isolates representing 4 clinically important genera, namely Absidia, Rhizomucor, Rhizopus and Syncephalastrum . The antifungal effects of statins revealed substantial differences. The synthetic statins proved to be more effective than the fungal metabolites. All investigated strains proved to be sensitive to fluvastatin. Fluvastatin and rosuvastatin acted synergistically and additively with amphotericin B in inhibiting the fungal growth in clinically available concentration ranges. Results suggest that statins combined with amphotericin B have a therapeutic potential against fungal infections caused by Zygomycetes species.

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